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The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which(More)
AIMS Comparison of in vitro fermentation properties of commercial prebiotic oligosaccharides. METHODS AND RESULTS Populations of predominant gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h of batch culture through fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Short-chain fatty acid and gas production were also measured. All prebiotics increased the numbers of(More)
Fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from orange peel pectin were assessed in mixed fecal bacterial culture. The orange peel oligosaccharide fraction contained glucose in addition to rhamnogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan pectic oligosaccharides. Twenty-four-hour, temperature- and pH-controlled, stirred anaerobic fecal batch cultures were(More)
The use of dietary intervention in the elderly in order to beneficially modulate their gut microbiota has not been extensively studied. The influence of two probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus fermentum) and two prebiotics [isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS)], individually and in synbiotic(More)
Prebiotics are non-digestible (by the host) food ingredients that have a beneficial effect through their selective metabolism in the intestinal tract. Key to this is the specificity of microbial changes. The present paper reviews the concept in terms of three criteria: (a) resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and gastrointestinal(More)
  • R A Rastall
  • 2010
Oligosaccharides are attracting increasing interest as prebiotic functional food ingredients. They can be extracted or obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from a variety of biomass sources or synthesized from simple oligosaccharides by enzymatic transfer reactions. The major prebiotic oligosaccharides on the market are inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and(More)
The fermentation of three arabinoxylan (AX) fractions from wheat by the human fecal microflora was investigated in vitro. Three AX fractions, with average molecular masses of 354, 278, and 66 kDa, were incorporated into miniature-scale batch cultures (with inulin as a positive prebiotic control) with feces from three healthy donors, aged 23-29. Microflora(More)
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary fibres have been associated with decreased risk of various cancers, although the mechanisms are unclear. Induction of apoptosis in tumour cells is thought to be an important protective mechanism against colorectal cancer. This work investigates the effects of pectins and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) on the human colonic adenocarcinoma(More)
Anaerobic batch culture fermenters were used for a preliminary screening of the in vitro utilization by human gut microflora of dextran and novel oligodextrans (I, II and III) produced in the University of Reading (UK). Glucose and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were used as reference carbohydrates. As expected, FOS acted as a good prebiotic in that it(More)