R. A. Rastall

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Prebiotics are non-digestible (by the host) food ingredients that have a beneficial effect through their selective metabolism in the intestinal tract. Key to this is the specificity of microbial changes. The present paper reviews the concept in terms of three criteria: (a) resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and gastrointestinal(More)
The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which(More)
AIMS Comparison of in vitro fermentation properties of commercial prebiotic oligosaccharides. METHODS AND RESULTS Populations of predominant gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h of batch culture through fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Short-chain fatty acid and gas production were also measured. All prebiotics increased the numbers of(More)
Oligosaccharides are attracting increasing interest as prebiotic functional food ingredients. They can be extracted or obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from a variety of biomass sources or synthesized from simple oligosaccharides by enzymatic transfer reactions. The major prebiotic oligosaccharides on the market are inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and(More)
Anaerobic batch culture fermenters were used for a preliminary screening of the in vitro utilization by human gut microflora of dextran and novel oligodextrans (I, II and III) produced in the University of Reading (UK). Glucose and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were used as reference carbohydrates. As expected, FOS acted as a good prebiotic in that it(More)
Fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from orange peel pectin were assessed in mixed fecal bacterial culture. The orange peel oligosaccharide fraction contained glucose in addition to rhamnogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan pectic oligosaccharides. Twenty-four-hour, temperature- and pH-controlled, stirred anaerobic fecal batch cultures were(More)
In November 2008, a group of scientists met at the 6th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in London, Ontario, Canada, to discuss the functionality of prebiotics. As a result of this, it was concluded that the prebiotic field is currently dominated by gastrointestinal events. However, in the future, it(More)
The fermentation of three arabinoxylan (AX) fractions from wheat by the human fecal microflora was investigated in vitro. Three AX fractions, with average molecular masses of 354, 278, and 66 kDa, were incorporated into miniature-scale batch cultures (with inulin as a positive prebiotic control) with feces from three healthy donors, aged 23-29. Microflora(More)
Diarrhoea is a common problem in dogs and can result in disturbance of the normal intestinal microbiota. However, little is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs with chronic diarrhoea and controlled canine studies of dietary management are scarce. The aims of this study were to investigate the predominant faecal microbiota of chronic(More)
The inaugural meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) was held May 3 to May 5 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. A group of 63 academic and industrial scientists from around the world convened to discuss current issues in the science of probiotics and prebiotics. ISAPP is a non-profit organization comprised of(More)