R A Hawkes

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Sentinel herds of large ruminants were established at five centres in Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, between 1995 and 1997. The application of a sensitive antigen capture ELISA to facilitate virus isolation procedures led to the isolation of 108 strains of bluetongue (BLU) virus. Serotypes isolated included types 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16,(More)
We used computer analysis to study hydrophilicity, homology, surface accessibility, molecular flexibility, and secondary structure of the deduced amino acid sequence of the flavivirus envelope (E)-glycoprotein. Using the results, we modified the E-glycoprotein antigenic structure proposed by Nowak and Wengler (1987, Virology, 156, 127-137). Our model(More)
To complement our battery of St Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we isolated and characterized MAbs reactive with another member of the SLE virus serocomplex, Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus. From 40 fusion products, we isolated 10 stable hybridomas. The combination of SLE and MVE virus MAbs defined eight epitopes on the(More)
Sera from 862 young children and 206 older subjects, living in four zones of the Sepik district in New Guinea, and obtained in March, August, December 1963, May 1964 and again in 1972, were tested for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers, surface antigen and antibody (HBsAg and anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc). This population was augmented by a group(More)
An improved bluetongue antigen capture ELISA (BTACE) technique was evaluated for its ability to detect the full range of 24 bluetongue (BLU) serotypes. The BTACE detected all 24 serotypes in cell culture fluids, including eight serotypes where the representative strains originated from both Australia and also from the South African reference collection. The(More)
A large outbreak of epidemic polyarthritis (EPA) caused by Ross River virus (RRV) occurred in New South Wales in the summer of 1983/1984. The total number of cases was unknown, but 1196 cases were confirmed by laboratory tests. Most patients came from the area west of the dividing range, with especially large numbers in the Murrumbidgee irrigation area.(More)
The rates of decline (half-lives) of maternally acquired antibodies of two different specificities in a group of infants were found to be highly variable, ranging from 18 to 192 days for parainfluenza type 3 antibody (54 infants) and from 15 to 251 days for influenza A2 antibody (nine infants). For antibodies of both specificities approximately 75% of the(More)
The postnatal decline of maternally acquired rubella antibody was studied in a large group of infants. A high degree of variability was found in the rate of antibody decline (half-life). Ninety-two babies had rubella antibody half-lives lying between 14 and 70 days and three had values considerably higher. There was no significant difference between the(More)