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We used computer analysis to study hydrophilicity, homology, surface accessibility, molecular flexibility, and secondary structure of the deduced amino acid sequence of the flavivirus envelope (E)-glycoprotein. Using the results, we modified the E-glycoprotein antigenic structure proposed by Nowak and Wengler (1987, Virology, 156, 127-137). Our model(More)
Sentinel herds of large ruminants were established at five centres in Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, between 1995 and 1997. The application of a sensitive antigen capture ELISA to facilitate virus isolation procedures led to the isolation of 108 strains of bluetongue (BLU) virus. Serotypes isolated included types 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16,(More)
Barmah Forest virus, a recently-discovered arbovirus which belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae, has been shown to cause infections in humans in New South Wales. The present report documents three patients in whom Barmah Forest viral infection appears to have resulted in illness. Barmah Forest virus or a closely-related alphavirus may,(More)
An improved bluetongue antigen capture ELISA (BTACE) technique was evaluated for its ability to detect the full range of 24 bluetongue (BLU) serotypes. The BTACE detected all 24 serotypes in cell culture fluids, including eight serotypes where the representative strains originated from both Australia and also from the South African reference collection. The(More)
Three patients who lived in south-eastern Australia and who suffered acute polyarticular illnesses in the summer months of 1983-1984 and 1984-1985 are described. Two patients lived in the southwestern plains of New South Wales and one in Bairnsdale in eastern Victoria. Serological studies implicated Kokobera virus, a flavivirus, as the likely causative(More)
Sera from 862 young children and 206 older subjects, living in four zones of the Sepik district in New Guinea, and obtained in March, August, December 1963, May 1964 and again in 1972, were tested for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers, surface antigen and antibody (HBsAg and anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc). This population was augmented by a group(More)
Following infection of chickens with infectious bronchitis virus (strain M41) viral antigens were detected by immunofluorescence in the basal layer of the tracheal mucosal epithelium for 44 days. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) first detected virus-specific antibody in tracheal washes 7 days after infection and at 10 days these antibodies(More)
Two ambulances from the existing fleet in Brighton and one in Hove are equipped with portable defibrillator-oscilloscope units. Selected attendants have been trained not only to defibrillate patients but also to perform endotracheal intubation and administer intravenous atropine and lignocaine for carefully defined indications. In the two years up to(More)
A large outbreak of epidemic polyarthritis (EPA) caused by Ross River virus (RRV) occurred in New South Wales in the summer of 1983/1984. The total number of cases was unknown, but 1196 cases were confirmed by laboratory tests. Most patients came from the area west of the dividing range, with especially large numbers in the Murrumbidgee irrigation area.(More)
Bluetongue (BT) viruses (BTV) have been propagated in laboratory culture systems for more than 50 years, especially for the production of vaccines. An important outcome of the adaptation of these viruses to laboratory culture is attenuation of their virulence. As a consequence of this modification, it has been possible to produce vaccines that have reduced(More)