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Thyroid function was evaluated in the Marshallese who were accidentally exposed to fallout-containing radioiodine isotopes in 1954. Measurements of thyrotrophin (TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels and free thyroxine (T4) index (FT4I) have revealed that, among 86 persons exposed on Rongelap and Ailingnae atolls, 14 have shown evidence of thyroid(More)
From June 1946 to August 1958, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) conducted nuclear weapons tests in the Northern Marshall Islands. On 1 March 1954, BRAVO, an above-ground test in the Castle series, produced high levels of radioactive material, some of which subsequently fell on Rongelap and Utirik Atolls due to an(More)
Blood specimens from a sample of 373 Marshall Islanders were studied with reference to variants of 23 serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes. Six of the traits studied exhibited genetic polymorphisms (adenosine deaminase, phosphoglucomutase1, acid phosphatase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin, and group specific component). There were in(More)
The events prior to Bravo Shot-Operation Castle that led to a decision not to evacuate the Marshallese prior to testing the thermonuclear bombs are presented as are the actions taken after the fallout incident in evacuating the exposed Marshallese and the military personnel. The initial medical effects (findings during first 6 wk after exposure) are briefly(More)