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The amygdala (AM) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) represent the rostral and the caudal pole, respectively, of a longitudinally organized neural system, that is responsible for the integration of behavioral and physiological manifestations of defensive reactions against innate and learned threats. Microinjection of benzodiazepine (BZD) anxiolytics, GABAA(More)
The effects of microinjection of the nitric oxide (NO) precursor l-arginine (l-Arg), the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors N-methyl-l-arginine (l-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and the cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) analog 8-Br-cGMP into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were assessed in rats using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim(More)
Cerebral ischemia leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Fish oil (FO) constitutes a rich dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective of the present study was to investigate whether long-term treatment with commercial, high concentration DHA-containing FO could be effective in(More)
Hippocampal output is increased in affective disorders and is mediated by increased glutamatergic input via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and moderated by antidepressant treatment. Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate evokes the release of nitric oxide (NO) by the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The human hippocampus(More)
The effect of 15 min, four-vessel-occlusion (4-VO) ischaemia on performance by rats in the circular platform task (CPT) was investigated. Possible correlations between the extent of hippocampal cell loss and behavioural disruption were evaluated. Sham-operated controls (n=10) and 4-VO ischaemic animals (n=32) were required to escape from a 1.2 m diameter,(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the origin of ascending serotonergic projections and is considered to be an important component of the brain circuit that mediates anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. A large fraction of DRN serotonin-positive neurons contain nitric oxide (NO). Disruption of NO-mediated neurotransmission in the DRN by NO synthase(More)
An electrical stimulation (ES) session with ten 30-second trains of sine-wave stimuli (30-100 microA, 60 Hz) separated by 30-second intervals was conducted daily in rats with electrodes implanted in the left or right or in both sides of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC; B = + 2 mmA, + or -0.6 unilateral or 1 mmL bilateral, + 2.7 mmV). The unilateral and(More)
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