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Several trees of amino acid sequences of rodent insulins were derived with the maximum-parsimony procedure. Possible orthologous and paralogous relationships were investigated. Except for a recent gene duplication in the ancestor of rat and mouse, there are no strong arguments for other paralogous relationships. Therefore, a tree in agreement with other… (More)
Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed cross-couplings between iodo-azetidines, -pyrrolidines, -piperidines, and Grignard reagents are disclosed. The reaction is efficient, cheap, chemoselective and tolerates a large variety of (hetero)aryl Grignard reagents.