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During a laparoscopic surgery, the endoscope can be manipulated by an assistant or a robot. Several teams have worked on the tracking of surgical instruments, based on methods ranging from the development of specific devices to image processing methods. We propose to exploit the instruments' insertion points, which are fixed on the patients abdominal(More)
Evaluation of surgical technical abilities is a major issue in minimally invasive surgery. Devices such as training benches offer specific scores to evaluate surgeons but cannot transfer in the operating room (OR). A contrario, several scores measure performance in the OR, but have not been evaluated on training benches. Our aim was to demonstrate that the(More)
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