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Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are versatile secretion systems that are found in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and secrete a wide range of substrates, from single proteins to protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes. They usually consist of 12 components that are organized into ATP-powered, double-membrane-spanning complexes. The(More)
Type IV secretion systems are secretion nanomachines spanning the two membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. Three proteins, VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10, assemble into a 1.05 megadalton (MDa) core spanning the inner and outer membranes. This core consists of 14 copies of each of the proteins and forms two layers, the I and O layers, inserting in the inner and(More)
Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which(More)
In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV secretion (T4S) systems form ATP-powered complexes that span the entire cellular envelope and secrete a wide variety of substrates from single proteins to protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes. Recent structural data, namely the electron microscopy structure of the T4S core complex and the atomic-resolution structure(More)
Bacteria commonly expose non-flagellar proteinaceous appendages on their outer surfaces. These extracellular structures, called pill or fimbriae, are employed in attachment and invasion, biofilm formation, cell motility or protein and DNA transport across membranes. Over the past 15 years, the power of molecular and structural techniques has(More)
S-layers are regular two-dimensional semipermeable protein layers that constitute a major cell-wall component in archaea and many bacteria. The nanoscale repeat structure of the S-layer lattices and their self-assembly from S-layer proteins (SLPs) have sparked interest in their use as patterning and display scaffolds for a range of nano-biotechnological(More)
Many type-IV secretion systems (T4SSs) of plant and human pathogens assemble a pilus used to inject virulence molecules (effectors) into host target cells. The T4SS of Agrobacterium tumefaciens consists of VirB1-VirB11 and VirD4 proteins. Whether targeting of T4SSs to the host requires a T4SS-adhesin that specifically engages host receptors for delivery of(More)
Curli are functional amyloid fibres that constitute the major protein component of the extracellular matrix in pellicle biofilms formed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (predominantly of the α and γ classes). They provide a fitness advantage in pathogenic strains and induce a strong pro-inflammatory response during bacteraemia. Curli formation requires a(More)
Bacterial type IV secretion systems translocate virulence factors into eukaryotic cells, distribute genetic material between bacteria and have shown potential as a tool for the genetic modification of human cells. Given the complex choreography of the substrate through the secretion apparatus, the molecular mechanism of the type IV secretion system has(More)
The formation of homo-oligomeric assemblies is a well-established characteristic of many soluble proteins and enzymes. Oligomerization has been shown to increase protein stability, allow allosteric cooperativity, shape reaction compartments and provide multivalent interaction sites in soluble proteins. In comparison, our understanding of the prevalence and(More)