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Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or(More)
BACKGROUND Chromatin structure can control gene expression and can define specific transcription states. For example, bivalent methylation of histone H3K4 and H3K27 is linked to poised transcription in vertebrate embryonic stem cells (ESC). It allows them to rapidly engage specific developmental pathways. We reasoned that non-vertebrate metazoans that(More)
Each year, there are persons who go to jail and lose their life savings, their homes, their reputations, and their jobs because social workers, psychologists, prosecutors, jurors, and judges believe what young children tell them about being sexually molested. Hundreds of thousands of individuals each year are accused falsely of child abuse (Besharov, 1984;(More)
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