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Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases(More)
The interplay between immune and tumor cells is complex. Various genetic immunodeficiency syndromes have been linked to an increased incidence of tumors in mice. 1 Moreover, many tumors downregulate the expression of MHC molecules, suggesting a role for the immune system in controlling the progression and evolution of cancer. 2 Accordingly, solid tumors,(More)
CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in CD8+ T cell-mediated responses against tumors. Considering that approximately 20% of melanomas express MHC class II, it is plausible that concomitant presentation by MHC class I and class II shapes positive (helper T cells) or negative (regulatory T cells) antitumor responses. Interestingly, gp100, a melanoma(More)
Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the activation and regulation of B and T lymphocytes. Production of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) by macrophages has recently been described to result in inhibition of T cell proliferation through tryptophan degradation. Since DCs can be derived from monocytes, we sought to determine whether DCs could produce(More)
A number of perturbations of B cells has been described in the setting of HIV infection; however, most remain poorly understood. To directly address the effect of HIV replication on B cell function, we investigated the capacity of B cells isolated from HIV-infected patients to respond to a variety of stimuli before and after reduction of viremia by(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCC) have few treatment options, underscoring the importance of developing new approaches such as immunotherapy. However, few tumor associated antigens (TAA), which can be targeted by immunotherapy, have been identified for this type of cancer. von Hippel-Lindau clear cell RCC (VHL(-/-)RCC) are characterized(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme with immune-regulating activities in many contexts, such as fetal protection, allograft protection, and cancer progression. Clinical trials are currently evaluating IDO inhibition with 1-methyltryptophan in cancer immunotherapy. However, the exact role of tryptophan catabolism by IDO in(More)
INTRODUCTION Our goal was to study the hormonal regulation of immune cell infiltration in prostate cancer patients treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using an optimized computer-assistance quantification approach. METHODS The relative density of immune cell subtypes (CD3(+), CD8(+), CD20(+), CD56(+), CD68(+) and Foxp3(+)) was analyzed by(More)