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MAIN OBJECTIVE To report age- and education-specific reference values for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Community and institutional settings in five regions across Canada. PARTICIPANTS 7754 subjects aged 65 and over randomly chosen to take part in the(More)
Manual dexterity is frequently evaluated in rehabilitation services to estimate hand function. Several tests have been developed for this purpose, including the Purdue Pegboard, which measures fine manual dexterity. The goals of the study were to verify the test-retest reliability with subjects aged 60 and over without upper limb impairment, and to develop(More)
A prospective analysis of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease was a major objective of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a nationwide, population-based study. Of 6,434 eligible subjects aged 65 years or older in 1991, 4,615 were alive in 1996 and participated in the follow-up study. All participants were cognitively normal in 1991 when they completed(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Very few population-based studies have systematically examined incident vascular dementia (VaD). From the Canadian Study of Health and Aging cohort, incidence rates of VaD were determined and risk factors analyzed. METHODS This was a cohort incidence study that followed 8623 subjects presumed to be free of dementia over a 5-year(More)
OBJECTIVES Objectives of this study were to develop normative data for the Test d'Evaluation des Membres Supérieurs de Personnes Agées (TEMPA) and determine its relation to upper extremity sensorimotor parameters such as fine and gross dexterity, coordination, strength, endurance, range of motion, and several types of sensibility. DESIGN Cross-sectional(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the immediate test-retest reliability of a single measure of several center of pressure (COP) variables, to report the number of trials to be averaged to obtain a reliable measurement of postural steadiness, and to determine the minimal metrically detectable change (MMDC). DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING University(More)
Although the identification and characterization of limb load asymmetries during quiet standing has not received much research attention, they may greatly extend our understanding of the upright stance stability control. It seems that the limb load asymmetry factor may serve as a veridical measure of postural stability and thus it can be used for early(More)
BACKGROUND Frailty and fitness are important attributes of older persons, but population samples of their prevalence, attributes, and outcomes are limited. METHODS The authors report data from the community-dwelling sample (n = 9008) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a representative, 5-year prospective cohort study. Fitness and frailty were(More)
The study investigated whether physiological factors related to specific body systems can explain postural control as measured by the scalar distance at a given time between the center of pressure (COP) and the center of mass (COM), the COP-COM variable. The data from 46 healthy subjects and 29 subjects with disabilities due to stroke or diabetic peripheral(More)
The Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) is an instrument designed to assess disabilities related to 29 functions with a four-point scale (from 0: independent to -3: dependent). For epidemiological studies, a total score and five sub-scores can be obtained. A revised version was developed adding a -0.5 level to many items to indicate an activity(More)