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Homeobox genes encode important developmental control proteins. The Drosophila fruit fly HOM complex genes are clustered in region 84-89 of chromosome 3. Probably due to large-scale genome duplication events, their human HOX orthologs belong to four paralogous regions. A series of 13 other homeobox genes are also clustered in region 88-94, on the same(More)
Transferases of the Fem family catalyse peptide-bond formation by using aminoacyl-tRNAs and peptidoglycan precursors as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. The specificity of Fem transferases is essential since mis-incorporated amino acids could act as chain terminators thereby preventing formation of a functional stress-bearing peptidoglycan(More)
It is proposed that proteins can bind with relatively low-affinity and specificity to multiple sites, defined as sequence motifs, on polynucleotide chains, and that such binding can collectively be turned into high-affinity, high-specificity binding through cooperative effects, especially when the sequence motifs recur periodically. The selection of(More)
Acquisition of resistance to the two classes of antibiotics therapeutically used against Gram-positive bacteria, the glycopeptides and the beta-lactams, has revealed an unexpected flexibility in the peptidoglycan assembly pathway. Glycopeptides select for diversification of the fifth position of stem pentapeptides because replacement of D-Ala by D-lactate(More)
Cochlin, an extracellular matrix protein, shares homologies with the Factor C, a serine protease found in horseshoe crabs, which is critical for antibacterial responses. Mutations in the COCH gene are responsible for human DFNA9 syndrome, a disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the inner ear that leads to hearing loss and vestibular impairments.(More)
It is proposed that equivalent phenotypic effects can be obtained by either structural changes in macromolecules involved in gene regulation or changes in activity of the structurally unaltered macromolecules. This equivalence between changes in activity (concentration) and changes in structure can come into play within physiologically plausible limits and(More)
Weissella viridescens FemX (FemX(Wv)) belongs to the Fem family of nonribosomal peptidyl transferases that use aminoacyl-tRNA as the amino acid donor to synthesize the peptide cross-bridge found in the peptidoglycan of many species of pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. We have recently solved the crystal structure of FemX(Wv) in complex with the(More)
The FemX(Wv) aminoacyl transferase of Weissella viridescens initiates the synthesis of the side chain of peptidoglycan precursors by transferring l-Ala from Ala-tRNA(Ala) to UDP-MurNAc-pentadepsipeptide. FemX(Wv) is an attractive target for the development of novel antibiotics, since the side chain is essential for the last cross-linking step of(More)