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The hypothesis that histaminergic neurons are involved in brain arousal is supported by many studies. However, the effects of the selective long-term abolition of histaminergic neurons on the sleep-wake cycle, indispensable in determining their functions, remain unknown. We have compared brain histamine(HA)-immunoreactivity and the cortical-EEG and(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are allosteric proteins that adopt inactive (R) and active (R*) conformations in equilibrium. R* is promoted by agonists or occurs spontaneously, leading to constitutive activity of the receptor. Conversely, inverse agonists promote R and decrease constitutive activity. The existence of another pharmacological entity,(More)
To determine the respective role played by orexin/hypocretin and histamine (HA) neurons in maintaining wakefulness (W), we characterized the behavioral and sleep-wake phenotypes of orexin (Ox) knock-out (-/-) mice and compared them with those of histidine-decarboxylase (HDC, HA-synthesizing enzyme)-/- mice. While both mouse strains displayed sleep(More)
Brain histaminergic neurons play a prominent role in arousal and maintenance of wakefulness (W). H(3)-receptors control the activity of histaminergic neurons through presynaptic autoinhibition. The role of H(3)-receptor antagonists/inverse agonists (H(3)R-antagonists) in the potential therapy of vigilance deficiency and sleep-wake disorders were studied by(More)
Histamine H3 receptor inverse agonists are known to enhance the activity of histaminergic neurons in brain and thereby promote vigilance and cognition. 1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride (BF2.649) is a novel, potent, and selective nonimidazole inverse agonist at the recombinant human H3 receptor. On the stimulation of guanosine(More)
BF2.649, a high affinity and selective non-imidazole histamine H(3)-receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, was found to easily enter the brain after oral administration to mice: it displayed a ratio of brain/plasma levels of about 25 when considering either C(max) or AUC values. At low oral doses (2.5-20mg/kg), it elicited in mice a dose-dependent wakening(More)
The histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) controls arousal and attention, and the firing of TMN neurons is state-dependent, active during waking, silent during sleep. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) promotes arousal and combats sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. Single-cell reverse-transcription-PCR demonstrated variable expression of the two(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Histamine H3 receptor antagonists are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for a number of central nervous system disorders including narcolepsy. These agents can increase wakefulness (W) in cats and rodents following acute administration, but their effects after repeat dosing have not been reported previously. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
Using knockout (KO) mice lacking the histamine (HA)-synthesizing enzyme (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), we have previously shown the importance of histaminergic neurons in maintaining wakefulness (W) under behavioral challenges. Since the central actions of HA are mediated by several receptor subtypes, it remains to be determined which one(s) could be(More)