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The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the(More)
The chloroplast chromosome of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a double-stranded circular DNA molecule of 150 725 nucleotide pairs. A comparison of this chromosome with those of the three other autotrophic dicotyledons for which complete DNA sequences of plastid chromosomes are available confirms a conserved overall structure. Three classes of open reading(More)
The immutans (im) mutant of Arabidopsis shows a variegated phenotype comprising albino and green somatic sectors. We have cloned the IM gene by transposon tagging and show that even stable null alleles give rise to a variegated phenotype. The gene product has amino acid similarity to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase. We show that the IM protein is(More)
Nearly 7000 Arabidopsis thaliana-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 10 cDNA libraries have been sequenced, of which almost 5000 non-redundant tags have been submitted to the EMBL data bank. The quality of the cDNA libraries used is analysed. Similarity searches in international protein data banks have allowed the detection of significant similarities to a(More)
Altered pigmentation is an easily scored and sensitive monitor of plastid function. We analyzed in detail a yellow colored transposon-tagged mutant (dal1-2) that is allelic to the dal mutant previously identified (Babiychuk et al., 1997). Mesophyll cells of mutant plants possess abnormal nucleoids and more but smaller plastids than wild type cells. Plastid(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are(More)
Chloroplasts must import a large number of proteins from the cytosol. It generally is assumed that this import proceeds for all stromal and thylakoid proteins in an identical manner and is caused by the operation of two distinctive protein import machineries in the outer and inner plastid envelope, which form the general import site. Here we show that there(More)
We used quantitative phase tomography with synchrotron radiation to elucidate the 3D structure of Arabidopsis seeds in their native state. The cells are clearly distinguished, and their internal structure is revealed through local variations in electron density. We visualized a 3D network of intercellular air space that might allow immediate gas exchange(More)
Control of translation is an important step in chloroplast gene expression. A first control can be exerted during the initiation complex formation which, in Escherichia coli, involves the ribosomal protein (r-protein) S1. A cDNA clone have been characterized which codes for the precursor of the chloroplast r-protein CS1. The mature protein consists of a(More)
A full-length cDNA clone, named PG1, abundantly expressed in late stages of pollen development, has been isolated from a cDNA library using a differential screening method with cDNA probes representative of microspores at early or late developmental stages. The encoded 410 amino acid polypeptide has significant homology with various polygalacturonases (PG)(More)