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Chitin is a surface component of parasites and insects, and chitinases are induced in lower life forms during infections with these agents. Although chitin itself does not exist in humans, chitinases are present in the human genome. We show here that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is induced via a T helper-2 (Th2)-specific, interleukin-13(More)
In order to assess the potential of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker of the nervous and neuroendocrine systems, we examined its immunolocation in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues, using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum and two new mouse monoclonal antisera, I3C4 and 3IA3. Our results demonstrate immunoreactive PGP 9.5 in neurons and nerve fibres at(More)
Asthma is on the rise despite intense, ongoing research underscoring the need for new scientific inquiry. In an effort to provide unbiased insight into disease pathogenesis, we took an approach involving expression profiling of lung tissue from mice with experimental asthma. Employing asthma models induced by different allergens and protocols, we identified(More)
Severe or therapy-resistant asthma is increasingly recognised as a major unmet need. A Task Force, supported by the European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society, reviewed the definition and provided recommendations and guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of severe asthma in children and adults. A literature review was performed,(More)
BACKGROUND In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former(More)
The histopathology of bronchial asthma is associated with structural changes within the airways, including subepithelial fibrosis, as well as chronic eosinophilic inflammation. The mechanisms responsible for this tissue remodeling, and in particular the role of inflammatory cells, remain to be established. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a(More)
We have tested the hypothesis that the bronchial epithelium has the capacity to generate and release cytokines that could contribute to inflammatory events associated with inflammatory lung diseases. Messenger RNA (mRNA) for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was identified in human bronchial epithelial(More)
It has been shown that histamine induces early changes on endothelial cells (EC), such as a transient expression of P-selectin and secretion and/or surface expression of early mediators (eg, prostacyclin [PG1(2)], platelet-activating factor [PAF], and leukotriene B4 [LTB4]). However, delayed effects of histamine on EC and particularly on cytokine production(More)
BACKGROUND Pollen immunotherapy is effective in selected patients with IgE-mediated seasonal allergic rhinitis, although it is questionable whether there is long-term benefit after the discontinuation of treatment. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the discontinuation of immunotherapy for grass-pollen allergy in(More)
The mechanisms involved in the initiation and maintenance of skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) are poorly understood. Recent data suggest that the pattern of cytokines expressed locally plays a critical role in modulating the nature of tissue inflammation. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate the expression of interleukin 4(More)