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Music, sound effects and speech prosody are missing from conventional closed captions. Despite advancements, closed captioning has yet to surpass the threshold of 1970s technology. In this study, animated text was used to convey missing sound information to hearing impaired users. Twenty-five hard of hearing and hearing participants watched two television(More)
Captioning is the main method for accessing television and film content by people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. One major difficulty consistently identified by the community is that of knowing who is speaking particularly for an off screen narrator. A captioning system was created using a participatory design method to improve speaker identification. The(More)
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