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OBJECTIVE Experimental evidence suggests that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediated leukocyte extravasation contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, decreases intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and competitively inhibits leukocyte intercellular adhesion molecule-1 binding. We(More)
OBJECTIVE Although an aneurysmal rupture typically presents on computed tomographic (CT) imaging as only subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), it may be associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), or subdural hemorrhage. On rare occasions, however, an aneurysmal rupture may present with IPH or IVH without SAH. METHODS(More)
Radiation-induced changes in the parietal cortex of Wistar rats were observed at various time points after gamma surgery. Maximum dosages of 50, 75, and 120 Gy were given at the iso-center of the radiation using a 4-mm collimator. Conventional histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, and computer-assisted videomicroscopy were utilized to examine(More)
OBJECTIVE Adhesion and migration of leukocytes into the periadventitial space play a role in the pathophysiology of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is a determinant cell adhesion molecule involved in this process. Ibuprofen has been shown to inhibit intercellular adhesion molecule-1 upregulation and prevent(More)
Papaverine (PPV) is a nonspecific vasodilator with widespread clinical uses in the treatment of arterial spasm. It has also been utilized in an attempt to reverse cerebral vasospasm. Recent angiographic results have demonstrated significant reversal of vasospasm in large vessels after selective intra-arterial application of PPV; however, these impressive(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of large and high-grade (Spetzler-Martin III-V) AVMs remains a challenge. There is a paucity of literature addressing the efficacy of radiosurgery in this group. We retrospectively analyze our experience with repeat radiosurgery with such AVMs. METHODS Between 1989 and 2004, 14 patients with large and high-grade AVMs deemed to be(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite improvements in the care of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, delayed cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and death. There is now evidence that a decrease in the local availability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in delayed cerebral vasospasm. We evaluated a controlled-release polymer containing the NO(More)
A model system for studying cerebral microvasculature is presented in which submerged in vitro brain slices are examined by computerized videomicroscopy. Brain slices are superfused continuously with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, while blood vessels are monitored using a transmission light microscope with water immersion objectives. The responses to(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are potent dilators in a variety of vascular beds. Recent evidence suggests that NO may serve as an intermediary messenger for CGRP and/or CGRP may serve as an intermediary messenger for NO in the expression of vasodilation. The present study was designed to provide an initial characterization of(More)
Lactacystin, a proteasome-inhibitor, has been shown to induce apoptosis of experimental gliomas in vitro. However, its systemic toxicity prevents further clinical use. To circumvent this problem, lactacystin can be delivered intratumorally. We tested the efficacy of lactacystin incorporated into controlled-release polymers for treating experimental gliomas.(More)