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—For problems of data compression, gambling, and prediction of individual sequences 1 the following questions arise. Given a target family of probability mass functions (1), how do we choose a probability mass function (1) so that it approximately minimizes the maximum regret /belowdisplayskip10ptminus6pt max (log 1 (1) log 1 (1 ^)) and so that it achieves(More)
be a memoryless source with unknown distribution on a finite alphabet of size k. We identify the asymptotic minimax coding redundancy for this class of sources, and provide a sequence of asymptotically mini-max codes. Equivalently, we determine the limiting behavior of the minimax relative entropy min Q max P D(P X kQ X), where the maximum is over all(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that sore throat following endotracheal intubation was a common problem following surgery. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies was to estimate whether the size of endotracheal tube (ETT) affects the incidence of postoperative sore throat(More)
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is characterized as brain dysfunction associated with sepsis. In this study we sought to investigate the effects of resveratrol in mice with SAE, as well as its effects in NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β, which were critical in the pathogenesis of SAE. SAE was induced in mice via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether anaesthetised patients undergoing surgery could benefit from intraoperative protective ventilation strategies. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched up to February 2014. Eligible studies evaluated protective ventilation versus conventional ventilation in(More)
In vertebrate neuromuscular junctions (nmjs), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is stored at the motor nerve terminals and is co-released with acetylcholine during neural stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggest that the synaptic ATP can act as a synapse-organizing factor at the nmjs, mediated by metabotropic P2Y(1) receptors. P2Y(1) receptor mRNAs in(More)
INTRODUCTION Fungal transversal across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) is the essential step for the development of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is an important signaling protein involved in several intracellular processes such as membrane trafficking, endocytosis, and exocytosis. AIM To investigate the roles and(More)
Acknowledgements This study represents close collaboration and teamwork. The authors would like to express their profound appreciation and thanks for the great support from the British Council, from the two partner universities, and also from the following individuals and school teachers, parents and children in China: and the Middle East, and led funded(More)