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For problems of data compression, gambling, and prediction of individual sequences 1 the following questions arise. Given a target family of probability mass functions ( 1 ), how do we choose a probability mass function ( 1 ) so that it approximately minimizes the maximum regret /belowdisplayskip10ptminus6pt max (log 1 ( 1 ) log 1 ( 1 )̂) and so that it(More)
Let Xn = (X1; ; Xn) be a memoryless source with unknown distribution on a finite alphabet of size k. We identify the asymptotic minimax coding redundancy for this class of sources, and provide a sequence of asymptotically minimax codes. Equivalently, we determine the limiting behavior of the minimax relative entropy minQ maxP D(PX kQX ), where the maximum(More)
BACKGROUND Ginsenoside Rg1, the major effective component of ginseng, possesses a variety of pharmacologic activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Rg1 on liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and explore its potential mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS Liver warm IR injury was achieved by occluding the portal vein and(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that sore throat following endotracheal intubation was a common problem following surgery. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies was to estimate whether the size of endotracheal tube (ETT) affects the incidence of postoperative sore throat(More)
Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created(More)
In vertebrate neuromuscular junctions (nmjs), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is stored at the motor nerve terminals and is co-released with acetylcholine during neural stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggest that the synaptic ATP can act as a synapse-organizing factor at the nmjs, mediated by metabotropic P2Y(1) receptors. P2Y(1) receptor mRNAs in(More)
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is characterized as brain dysfunction associated with sepsis. In this study we sought to investigate the effects of resveratrol in mice with SAE, as well as its effects in NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β, which were critical in the pathogenesis of SAE. SAE was induced in mice via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and(More)
While pancreatic protein synthesis and the initiation of translation are regulated by hormones and neurotransmiters, whether the elongation process is also regulated is unknown. Stimulatory doses of cholecystokinin (CCK) (100 pM), bombesin (10 nM), and carbachol (10 microM) increased elongation rates (measured as ribosomal half-transit time) in pancreatic(More)
The coagulant effects of phospholipase A2 with Gln at 49 sites (Gln49-PLA2), purified from Gloydius ussurensis snake venom, were investigated on human citrated plasma and fibrinogen. Gln49-PLA2 clotted human plasma dose-dependently from 180.67 +/- 1.86 s to 19.00 +/- 0.58 s, and reduced the re-calcification time from 7.46 +/- 1.17 to 0.75 +/- 0.33 min and(More)