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A maternal plant exquisitely promotes the success of its offspring by orchestrating embryo development and endowing protection even after the embryos mature. It uses ovule integuments for physical and physiological contact with the developing embryo and for subsequently equipping the seed with a seed coat (testa). The testa is developmentally and(More)
Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes(More)
Bread wheat (hexaploid AABBDD genome; 16 billion basepairs) is a genetically complex, self-pollinating plant with bisexual flowers that produce short-lived pollen. Very little is known about the molecular biology of its gametophyte development despite a longstanding interest in hybrid seeds. We present here a comprehensive characterization of three(More)
The general phenylpropanoid pathways generate a wide array of aromatic secondary metabolites that range from monolignols, which are ubiquitous in all plants, to sinapine, which is confined to crucifer seeds. The biosynthesis of these compounds involves hydroxylated and methoxylated cinnamyl acid, aldehyde, or alcohol intermediates. Of the three enzymes(More)
Membrane-bound glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; EC mediates the initial step of glycerolipid biosynthesis in the extraplastidic compartments of plant cells. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel GPAT gene family from Arabidopsis, designated AtGPAT. The corresponding polypeptides possess transmembrane domains and GPAT(More)
BNM2 is a prototypical member of the enigmatic BURP domain protein family whose members contain the signature FX6–7GX10–28PX25–31CX11–12X2SX45–56CHX10CHX25–29CHX2TX15–16PX5CH in the C-terminus. This protein family occurs only in plants, and the cognate genes vary very widely in their expression contexts in vegetative and reproductive tissues. None of the(More)
The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is(More)
Quantitative data of spinal intervertebral disc deformation is instrumental for investigation of spinal disc pathology. In this study, we employed a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system and the MR imaging technique to determine the lumbar disc deformation in living human subjects. Discs at L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 levels were investigated in 8 normal(More)
Lumbar vertebrae are complicated in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in-vivo motion characteristics of different portions of the lumbar vertebrae during functional activities. Motion of L2, L3 and L4 was reproduced using a combined dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique during flexion-extension and left-right(More)
OBJECTIVE To report three cases of transient paralysis shortly after (within 4 hours) anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), and investigate the possible causes. METHODS Clinical and radiological data of three cases (two men and one woman, aged 41-61 years) were analyzed retrospectively. All three patients underwent ACCF for cervical spondylotic(More)