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Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes(More)
Membrane-bound glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; EC 2.3.1.15) mediates the initial step of glycerolipid biosynthesis in the extraplastidic compartments of plant cells. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel GPAT gene family from Arabidopsis, designated AtGPAT. The corresponding polypeptides possess transmembrane domains and GPAT(More)
A maternal plant exquisitely promotes the success of its offspring by orchestrating embryo development and endowing protection even after the embryos mature. It uses ovule integuments for physical and physiological contact with the developing embryo and for subsequently equipping the seed with a seed coat (testa). The testa is developmentally and(More)
The general phenylpropanoid pathways generate a wide array of aromatic secondary metabolites that range from monolignols, which are ubiquitous in all plants, to sinapine, which is confined to crucifer seeds. The biosynthesis of these compounds involves hydroxylated and methoxylated cinnamyl acid, aldehyde, or alcohol intermediates. Of the three enzymes(More)
Bread wheat (hexaploid AABBDD genome; 16 billion basepairs) is a genetically complex, self-pollinating plant with bisexual flowers that produce short-lived pollen. Very little is known about the molecular biology of its gametophyte development despite a longstanding interest in hybrid seeds. We present here a comprehensive characterization of three(More)
Tissue-specific extracellular matrix plays an important role in promoting tissue regeneration and repair. We hypothesized that decellularized annular fibrosus matrix may be an appropriate scaffold for annular fibrosus tissue engineering. We aimed to determine the optimal decellularization method suitable for annular fibrosus. Annular fibrosus tissue was(More)
Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom(More)
STUDY DESIGN Controlled laboratory study. OBJECTIVE To measure the range of motion of lumbar facet (zygapophyseal) joints in vivo during various functional weight-bearing positions of the upper body. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Determination of normal in vivo motion of the lumbar facet joints remains elusive despite numerous in vitro studies, animal(More)
Quantitative data of spinal intervertebral disc deformation is instrumental for investigation of spinal disc pathology. In this study, we employed a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system and the MR imaging technique to determine the lumbar disc deformation in living human subjects. Discs at L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 levels were investigated in 8 normal(More)
The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is(More)