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Membrane-bound glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; EC 2.3.1.15) mediates the initial step of glycerolipid biosynthesis in the extraplastidic compartments of plant cells. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel GPAT gene family from Arabidopsis, designated AtGPAT. The corresponding polypeptides possess transmembrane domains and GPAT(More)
The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is(More)
Tissue-specific extracellular matrix plays an important role in promoting tissue regeneration and repair. We hypothesized that decellularized annular fibrosus matrix may be an appropriate scaffold for annular fibrosus tissue engineering. We aimed to determine the optimal decellularization method suitable for annular fibrosus. Annular fibrosus tissue was(More)
Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom(More)
STUDY DESIGN Controlled laboratory study. OBJECTIVE To measure the range of motion of lumbar facet (zygapophyseal) joints in vivo during various functional weight-bearing positions of the upper body. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Determination of normal in vivo motion of the lumbar facet joints remains elusive despite numerous in vitro studies, animal(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), typically characterized by the forward slippage of the superior vertebra of a lumbar motion segment, is a common spinal pathological condition in elderly individuals. Significant deformation and volume changes of the spinal canal can occur because of the vertebral slippage, but few data have(More)
Lumbar vertebrae are complicated in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in-vivo motion characteristics of different portions of the lumbar vertebrae during functional activities. Motion of L2, L3 and L4 was reproduced using a combined dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique during flexion-extension and left-right(More)
OBJECTIVE Although some studies have reported on the kinematics of the lumbar segments with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), few data have been reported on the in vivo 6 degree-of-freedom kinematics of different anatomical structures of the diseased levels under physiological loading conditions. This research is to study the in vivo motion(More)
Starch granule size distributions in plant tissues, when determined in high resolution and specified properly as a frequency function, could provide useful information on the granule formation and growth. To better understand genetic control of physical properties of starch granules, we attempted a new approach to analyze developmental and genotypic effects(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) transient motion characteristics of the subaxial cervical spine in healthy adults. METHODS Seventeen healthy volunteers without cervical spine related diseases were recruited for this study, including 8 males and 9 females with a mean age of 26 years (range, 23-41 years). The vertebral segment(More)