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Malaria parasite transmission requires differentiation of male and female gametocytes into gametes within a mosquito following a blood meal. A mosquito-derived molecule, xanthurenic acid (XA), can trigger gametogenesis, but the signalling events controlling this process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remain unknown. A role for cGMP was(More)
The sexual stages of malarial parasites are essential for the mosquito transmission of the disease and therefore are the focus of transmission-blocking drug and vaccine development. In order to better understand genes important to the sexual development process, the transcriptomes of high-purity stage I-V Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes were(More)
We report the first in vitro and genetic confirmation of Malarone (GlaxoSmithKline; atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum acquired in Africa. On presenting with malaria two weeks after returning from a 4-week visit to Lagos, Nigeria without prophylaxis, a male patient was given a standard 3-day treatment course of(More)
The var genes encode Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) proteins, a set of highly diverse surface-expressed proteins that mediate adhesion of erythrocytes infected with asexual blood-stage parasites to host endothelium. Switching among expressed PfEMP1 variants in the course of a blood-stage infection is a key component of(More)
BACKGROUND Fixed-dose combination antimalarial drugs have played an increasingly important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of falciparum malaria since the worldwide failure of monotherapy with chloroquine. Atovaquone-proguanil is one such combination drug used both for prophylaxis in travellers, and for treatment of acute malaria cases in(More)
Malaria pathology is caused by multiplication of asexual parasites within erythrocytes, whereas mosquito transmission of malaria is mediated by sexual precursor cells (gametocytes). Microarray analysis identified glycerol kinase (GK) as the second most highly upregulated gene in Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes with no expression detectable in asexual(More)
The life cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is complex with distinct phases occurring in the human host and the mosquito vector. Proliferation of asexual parasites within blood cells leads to pathology whereas a distinct sexual stage is required to mediate transmission to the insect. There is a surprising lack of information about how progression of(More)
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