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This study reveals that older adults have a positivity effect in long-term autobiographical memory and that a positivity bias can be induced in younger adults by a heightened motivation to regulate current emotional well-being. Three hundred nuns, ages 47 to 102 years, recalled personal information originally reported 14 years earlier. They did so under(More)
BACKGROUND Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. METHODS Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation(More)
INTRODUCTION Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a(More)
Previous studies have consistently reported age-related changes in cognitive abilities and brain structure. Previous studies also suggest compensatory roles for specialized training, skill, and years of education in the age-related decline of cognitive function. The Stanford/VA Aviation Study examines the influence of specialized training and skill level(More)
INTRODUCTION Helicopter overland navigation is a cognitively complex task that requires continuous monitoring of system and environment parameters and years of training. This study investigated potential improvements to training simulation by analyzing the influences of flight expertise on visual scan patterns. METHODS There were 12 military officers who(More)
OBJECTIVE The study explores the prenatal Child Abuse Potential (pCAP) scores derived from the Child Abuse Potential Inventory administered to expectant adolescent mothers. The aim of the study was to assess the association of the pCAP scores with maternal negative prenatal behaviors, and evaluate the contribution of the pCAP scores to neonatal morbidity.(More)
PURPOSE To explore the correlates of high scores on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in adolescent expectant mothers. METHODS Child Abuse Potential scores and data on demographics, pregnancy desire, history of maltreatment, psychological functioning, and perceived social support were obtained by self-report and semi-structured interview. The sample(More)
INTRODUCTION Helicopter overland navigation is a cognitively complex task that requires continuous monitoring of system and environmental parameters and many hours of training to master. This study investigated the effect of expertise on pilots' gaze measurements, navigation accuracy, and subjective assessment of their navigation accuracy in overland(More)
OBJECTIVES The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. METHOD We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants(More)