Quinn C Emmering

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1. Information benefits organisms living in a heterogeneous world by reducing uncertainty associated with decision making. For breeding passerines, information reliably associated with nest failure, such as predator activity, can be used to adjust breeding decisions leading to higher reproductive success. 2. Predator vocalizations may provide a source of(More)
Sexual dimorphism in the ratio of digit lengths has been correlated to behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits in a variety of taxa. While sexual dimorphism in the second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is a well-established indicator of prenatal androgen exposure in mammals, investigations into the patterns of 2D:4D and the drivers of such(More)
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