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BACKGROUND The prevalence of NTDs in the US declined significantly after mandatory folic acid fortification; however, it is not known if the prevalence of NTDs has continued to decrease in recent years relative to the period immediately following the fortification mandate. METHODS Population-based data from 21 birth defects surveillance systems were used(More)
BACKGROUND Down's syndrome is the most frequently identified cause of mental retardation, but information about mortality and comorbidity in people with Down's syndrome is limited. METHODS We used data from US death certificates from 1983 to 1997 to calculate median age at death and standardised mortality odds ratios (SMORs) for common medical disorders(More)
Although neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a relatively common autosomal dominant condition, information about its effect on mortality is limited. We used Multiple-Cause Mortality Files, compiled from U.S. death certificates by the National Center for Health Statistics, for 1983 through 1997. We identified 3,770 cases of presumed NF1 among 32,722,122 deaths in(More)
OBJECTIVE Although trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 are generally considered to be lethal, long-term survival of patients has been reported. We sought to evaluate mortality in people with trisomy 13 or 18 using 2 population-based strategies. METHODS In the first analysis, infants who had trisomy 13 or 18 and were born during 1968-1999 were identified using the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of Planet Health, a school-based intervention designed to reduce obesity in youth of middle-school age children. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods and a societal perspective were used in this study. Three categories of costs were measured: intervention(More)
PURPOSE The current clinical value of genomic profiling (testing for genotypes at multiple loci) for assessing susceptibility to common diseases and targeting behavioral and medical interventions is questionable. As common diseases result from many gene-environment interactions, epidemiologic studies should be used to examine the value of genomic profiling(More)
CONTEXT Recent recommendations from the American Heart Association aim to improve cardiovascular health by encouraging the general population to meet 7 cardiovascular health metrics: not smoking; being physically active; having normal blood pressure, blood glucose and total cholesterol levels, and weight; and eating a healthy diet. OBJECTIVE To examine(More)
BACKGROUND Most common human diseases are due to complex interactions among multiple genetic variants and environmental risk factors. There is debate over whether variants of a relatively small number of genes, each with weak or modest individual effects, account for a large proportion of common diseases in the population, or whether a large number of rare(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities of folate and homocysteine metabolism are associated with a number of pediatric and adult disorders. Folate intake and genetic polymorphisms encoding folate-metabolizing enzymes influence blood folate and homocysteine concentrations, but the effects and interactions of these factors have not been studied on a population-wide basis.(More)
BACKGROUND Several epidemiologic studies suggested that higher sodium and lower potassium intakes were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Few studies have examined joint effects of dietary sodium and potassium intake on risk of mortality. METHODS To investigate estimated usual intakes of sodium and potassium as well as their(More)