Learn More
Pathogenic microbes use effectors to enhance susceptibility in host plants. However, plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system to detect these effectors using cognate disease resistance proteins, a recognition that is highly specific, often elicits rapid and localized cell death, known as a hypersensitive response, and thus potentially limits(More)
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (sirtuins) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biological processes. Mammals have seven sirtuins, Sirt1 to Sirt7. Four of them (Sirt4 to Sirt7) have no detectable or very weak deacetylase activity. We found that Sirt5 is an efficient protein lysine desuccinylase(More)
Interplay among four genes--egl-1, ced-9, ced-4 and ced-3--controls the onset of programmed cell death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Activation of the cell-killing protease CED-3 requires CED-4. However, CED-4 is constitutively inhibited by CED-9 until its release by EGL-1. Here we report the crystal structure of the CED-4-CED-9 complex at 2.6 A(More)
KChIPs coassemble with pore-forming Kv4 alpha subunits to form a native complex in the brain and heart and regulate the expression and gating properties of Kv4 K(+) channels, but the mechanisms underlying these processes are unknown. Here we report a co-crystal structure of the complex of human Kv4.3 N-terminus and KChIP1 at a 3.2-A resolution. The(More)
Human MRG15 is a transcription factor that plays a vital role in embryonic development, cell proliferation and cellular senescence. It comprises a putative chromo domain in the N-terminal part that has been shown to participate in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. We report here the crystal structure of human MRG15 chromo domain at 2.2 A(More)
Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteine sulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure(More)
The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism and lifespan. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human SIRT6 efficiently(More)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are major epigenetic modulators involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases including cancers. As HDACs are promising targets of cancer therapy, it is important to understand the mechanisms of HDAC regulation. In this study, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4) interacts directly with and deubiquitinates HDAC2,(More)
Sirtuins are a class of enzymes originally identified as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine deacetylases. Among the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1-7, only SIRT1-3 possess efficient deacetylase activity in vitro, whereas SIRT4-7 possess very weak in vitro deacetylase activity. Several sirtuins that exhibit weak deacetylase(More)
In the initial stage of SAD phasing, the essential point is to break the intrinsic phase ambiguity. The presence of two kinds of phase information enables the discrimination of phase doublets from SAD data prior to density modification. One is from the heavy atoms (anomalous scatterers), while the other is from the direct-methods phase relationships. The(More)