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The initial desertification in the Asian interior is thought to be one of the most prominent climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere during the Cenozoic era. But the dating of this transition is uncertain, partly because desert sediments are usually scattered, discontinuous and difficult to date. Here we report nearly continuous aeolian deposits covering(More)
Pathogenic microbes use effectors to enhance susceptibility in host plants. However, plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system to detect these effectors using cognate disease resistance proteins, a recognition that is highly specific, often elicits rapid and localized cell death, known as a hypersensitive response, and thus potentially limits(More)
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (sirtuins) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biological processes. Mammals have seven sirtuins, Sirt1 to Sirt7. Four of them (Sirt4 to Sirt7) have no detectable or very weak deacetylase activity. We found that Sirt5 is an efficient protein lysine desuccinylase(More)
Interplay among four genes--egl-1, ced-9, ced-4 and ced-3--controls the onset of programmed cell death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Activation of the cell-killing protease CED-3 requires CED-4. However, CED-4 is constitutively inhibited by CED-9 until its release by EGL-1. Here we report the crystal structure of the CED-4-CED-9 complex at 2.6 A(More)
KChIPs coassemble with pore-forming Kv4 alpha subunits to form a native complex in the brain and heart and regulate the expression and gating properties of Kv4 K(+) channels, but the mechanisms underlying these processes are unknown. Here we report a co-crystal structure of the complex of human Kv4.3 N-terminus and KChIP1 at a 3.2-A resolution. The(More)
Human MRG15 is a transcription factor that plays a vital role in embryonic development, cell proliferation and cellular senescence. It comprises a putative chromo domain in the N-terminal part that has been shown to participate in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. We report here the crystal structure of human MRG15 chromo domain at 2.2 A(More)
BACKGROUND Most (70%) epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) are diagnosed late. Non-invasive biomarkers that facilitate disease detection and predict outcome are needed. The microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a new class of biomarkers. This study was to identify and validate plasma miRNAs as biomarkers in EOC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We evaluated plasma(More)
The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism and lifespan. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human SIRT6 efficiently(More)
Stecrisp from Trimeresurus stejnegeri snake venom belongs to a family of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) that have various functions related to sperm-egg fusion, innate host defense, and the blockage of ion channels. Here we present the crystal structure of stecrisp refined to 1.6-angstrom resolution. It shows that stecrisp contains three regions,(More)
Fms1 is a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid in yeast. Fms1 has polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity, which converts spermine into spermidine and 3-aminopropanal. The 3-aminopropanal is further oxidized to produce beta-alanine, which is necessary for the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid. The crystal structures of Fms1 and its complex(More)