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This work investigates the polyanion initiated gelation process in fabricating chitosan-TPP (tripolyphosphate) nanoparticles in the size range of 100-250 nm intended to be used as carriers for the delivery of gene or protein macromolecules. It demonstrates that ionic gelation of cationic chitosan molecules offers a flexible and easily controllable process(More)
OBJECTIVE To address the health hazards tobacco smoking imposes upon non-smokers in China, this paper estimates the burden of diseases in adults from passive tobacco smoking for two major diseases--lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS The disease burden was estimated in terms of both premature mortality and disability adjusted life years(More)
BACKGROUND China has the most smokers among the world's nations. Physicians play a key role in smoking cessation, but little is known about Chinese physicians and smoking. METHODS This 2004 clustered randomized survey of 3552 hospital-based physicians from six Chinese cities measured smoking attitudes, knowledge, personal behavior, and cessation practices(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between the Chinese tobacco industry and academic institutions in China. METHODS We searched online databases of journal articles published in both Chinese and English for academic institutions in China conducting research with or sponsored by Chinese tobacco companies. We also searched the websites of tobacco(More)
Wired equivalent security is difficult to provide in ad-hoc networks due to high dynamics, wireless link vulnerability, and requirement of decentralization. In order to keep up with new networking needs, the secure charging protocol (SCP) aiming at answering the complex authentication, authorization, accounting and charging (AAAC) problem was proposed. This(More)
Previous studies on facial expression analysis have been focused on recognizing basic expression categories. There is limited amount of work on the continuous expression intensity estimation, which is important for detecting and tracking emotion change. Part of the reason is the lack of labeled data with annotated expression intensity since expression(More)
Chitosan nanoparticles fabricated via different preparation protocols have been in recent years widely studied as carriers for therapeutic proteins and genes with varying degree of effectiveness and drawbacks. This work seeks to further explore the polyionic coacervation fabrication process, and associated processing conditions under which protein(More)
Glutamate-gated ion channels embedded within the neuronal membrane are the primary mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS. The ion channel of these glutamate receptors contains a pore-lining transmembrane M3 helix surrounded by peripheral M1 and M4 helices. In the NMDA receptor subtype, opening of the ion channel pore, mediated by(More)
Most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system is mediated by glutamate acting through ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). iGluRs (AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subtypes) are tetrameric assemblies, formed as a dimer of dimers. Still, the mechanism underlying tetramerization--the necessary step for the formation of functional(More)
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) play a critical role in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission. The number and subunit composition of AMPARs at synapses determines the dynamics of fast glutamatergic signalling. Functional AMPARs on the cell surface are tetramers. Thus tetrameric assembly of AMPARs represents a promising target for modulating AMPAR-mediated(More)