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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality(More)
Accumulating evidence has shown that dysfunctional mitochondria can be selectively removed by mitophagy. Dysregulation of mitophagy is implicated in the development of neurodegenerative disease and metabolic disorders. How individual mitochondria are recognized for removal and how this process is regulated remain poorly understood. Here we report that(More)
Mutations in Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates protein turnover, represent one of the major causes of familial Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and impaired mitochondrial functions. The underlying mechanism by which pathogenic Parkin mutations induce mitochondrial abnormality is(More)
Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by palmoplantar and periorificial keratoderma, alopecia in most cases, and severe itching. The genetic basis for OS remained unidentified. Using whole-exome sequencing of case-parents trios, we have identified a de novo missense mutation in TRPV3 that produces p.Gly573Ser in an individual(More)
The high degree of similarity between the mouse and human genomes is demonstrated through analysis of the sequence of mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu 16), which was obtained as part of a whole-genome shotgun assembly of the mouse genome. The mouse genome is about 10% smaller than the human genome, owing to a lower repetitive DNA content. Comparison of the(More)
PURPOSE Both CD44 and CD133 were reported as putative markers for isolating colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC). It remains to be resolved if both of these markers are of functional importance for colorectal CSC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The expression of CD44 and CD133 in normal colonic tissues and primary colorectal cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry(More)
The distribution of cytosine methylation in 6.2 Mb of the mouse genome was tested using cohybridization of genomic representations from a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme and its methylation-insensitive isoschizomer. This assay, termed HELP (HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR), allows both intragenomic profiling and intergenomic(More)
Mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, is a major mechanism involved in mitochondrial quality control via selectively removing damaged or unwanted mitochondria. Interactions between LC3 and mitophagy receptors such as FUNDC1, which harbors an LC3-interacting region (LIR), are essential for this selective process. However, how mitochondrial stresses are(More)