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AIM To identify and quantify the major metabolites of salvianolic acid B (SAB) after intravenous injection in rats. METHODS LC-IT/TOF-MS was used to identify the metabolites in rat bile, plasma, and urine; LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the two major metabolites. RESULTS In rat bile, plasma, and urine, nine metabolites were identified, including(More)
We report our discovery of a novel series of potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors. Starting from a lead identified by scaffold-hopping approach, our discovery and development efforts were focused on exploring structure-activity relationships, optimizing pharmacokinetic profile, improving in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and(More)
The aim of the study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of rhein to predict human pharmacokinetics before dosing for the first time in human beings. After oral administration of rhein at the doses of 35, 70 and 140 mg/kg in rat, rhein had the following mean plasma pharmacokinetic properties: t1/2 of 3.2, 3.6 and 4.3 hr, AUC∞(More)
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is an important class of phase II metabolizing enzymes, playing a pivotal role in detoxifying various substances and in the pathological procedures of some diseases. The present study aims to uncover the potential dysregulation pattern of UGTs in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by(More)
A mechanism-based model was developed to describe the time course of lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior and azithromycin pharmacodynamics in mice. The lipopolysaccharide-induced disease progression was monitored by lipopolysaccharide, proinflammatory cytokines, and kynrenine concentration in plasma. The depressive-like behavior was(More)
Identification of nontarget compounds in complex mixtures is of significant importance in various scientific fields. On the basis of the universal property that the compounds in complex mixtures can be classified to various analogous families, this study presents a general strategy for the rapid identification of nontarget compounds from complex matrixes(More)
1. The aim of this study was to investigate the biotransformation of salvianolic acid B (SAB) by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and its interaction with levodopa (l-DOPA) methylation in rats. 2. The enzyme kinetics of SAB were studied after incubation with rat COMT. The in vivo SAB and 3-monomethyl-SAB (3-MMS) levels were determined after a single dose(More)
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of complex metabolic disorder associated with various types of complications. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the major phase II conjugation enzymes, mediate the metabolism of both drugs and endogenous metabolites that may raise great concerns in the condition of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine(More)
Silybin, a major pharmacologically active compound in silymarin, has been widely used in combination with other prescriptions in the clinic to treat hepatitis and a host of other diseases. Previous studies suggested that silybin is a potential inhibitor of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs); however, the in vitro to in vivo translation and the(More)
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