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The primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], is associated with multiple medical outcomes, including rickets, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and cancer. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 4501 persons of European ancestry drawn from five cohorts, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene(More)
BACKGROUND The cost efficient two-stage design is often used in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in searching for genetic loci underlying the susceptibility for complex diseases. Replication-based analysis, which considers data from each stage separately, often suffers from loss of efficiency. Joint test that combines data from both stages has been(More)
Determination of the relevance of both demanding classical epidemiologic criteria for control selection and robust handling of population stratification (PS) represents a major challenge in the design and analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Empirical data from two GWAS in European Americans of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility(More)
HPV infrequently persists and progresses to cervical cancer. We examined host genetic factors hypothesized to play a role in determining which subset of individuals infected with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) have persistent infection and further develop cervical pre-cancer/cancer compared to the majority of infected individuals who will clear(More)
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), single-marker analysis is usually employed to identify the most significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The trend test has been proposed for analysis of case-control association. Three trend tests, optimal for the recessive, additive and dominant models respectively, are available. When the underlying(More)
BACKGROUND Host genetic factors might affect the risk of progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiologic agent for cervical cancer, to persistent HPV infection, and hence to cervical precancer and cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We assessed 18,310 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1113 genes in(More)
Although several genes (including a strong effect in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region) and some environmental factors have been implicated to cause susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the etiology of the disease is not completely understood. The ability to screen the entire genome for association to complex diseases has great potential for(More)
Two-stage design is very useful in clinical trials for evaluating the validity of a specific treatment regimen. When the second stage is allowed to continue, the method used to estimate the response rate based on the results of both stages is critical for the subsequent design. The often-used sample proportion has an evident upward bias. However, the(More)
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool to identify important linear combination of correlated variables in multivariate analysis and has been applied to detect association between genetic variants and human complex diseases of interest. How to choose adequate number of principal components (PCs) to represent the original system in an optimal(More)