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In 2001 and 2003, we isolated two H5N1 viruses, A/swine/Fujian/1/01 (SW/FJ/01) and A/swine/Fujian/1/03 (SW/FJ/03), from pigs in Fujian Province, southern China. Genetically, these two viruses are similar, although the NS gene of the SW/FJ/03 virus has a 15-nucleotide deletion at coding positions 612 to 626. The SW/FJ/01 virus is highly lethal for chickens,(More)
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes disease to emerge in duck flocks and results in huge economic losses to the duck industry. However, no vaccines and control measures are available in China to date. Development of reliable and fast detection methods is necessary to prevent and control this disease.(More)
Influenza prophylaxis would benefit from a simple method to administer influenza vaccine into skin without the need for hypodermic needles. In this study, solid metal microneedle arrays (MNs) were investigated as a system for cutaneous vaccine delivery using influenza virus antigen. The MNs with 5 monument-shaped microneedles per array were produced and(More)
The causative agent of Glasser's disease in swine is Haemophilus parasuis. Commercial bacterins are widely used for protection of the swine population. However, cross protection is limited because H. parasuis has more than 15 serovars. Transferrin-binding protein A has shown potential as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate against homologous and heterologous(More)
Novel H5N6 influenza A viruses have infected birds and human beings and caused four human clinical cases in China since 2014. The pig, as a mixing vessel, plays an important role for influenza virus reassortment and transmission. Towards this, routine surveillance for swine influenza in Guangdong province was conducted in 2014. In this study, we reported(More)
Viral pneumonia has been frequently reported during early stages of influenza virus pandemics and in many human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease, we produced nonlethal viral pneumonia in rhesus macaques by using an HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Anhui/2/2005; referred to as(More)
BACKGROUND H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. STUDY DESIGN Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight(More)
We isolated nineteen strains of H9N2 influenza virus from farms across five northern Chinese provinces between 2001 and 2012. Sequence analysis of the genes for the two surface glycoproteins revealed that residue 226 of the hemagglutinin (HA) of eight isolates was a leucine. A T300I mutation in three strains resulted in the loss of a potential glycosylation(More)
We present new approaches to cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in the common scenario where relevant transcription factors and/or motifs are unknown. Beginning with a small list of CRMs mediating a common gene expression pattern, we search genome-wide for CRMs with similar functionality, using new statistical scores and without requiring known motifs or(More)
Despite recent advances in experimental approaches for identifying transcriptional cis-regulatory modules (CRMs, 'enhancers'), direct empirical discovery of CRMs for all genes in all cell types and environmental conditions is likely to remain an elusive goal. Effective methods for computational CRM discovery are thus a critically needed complement to(More)