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PURPOSE The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for tumors is defined as the biologically equivalent dose that, if given uniformly, will lead to the same cell kill in the tumor volume as the actual nonuniform dose distribution. Recently, a new formulation of EUD was introduced that applies to normal tissues as well. EUD can be a useful end point in evaluating(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the possibility of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to reduce the irradiated volumes of the normal lung and other critical structures in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the effect of IMRT on the potential of spreading low doses to large volumes of normal tissues in such treatment. (More)
The main purpose of this paper is to describe formalisms, algorithms, and certain unique features of a system for optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The system is coupled to a commercial treatment planning system with an accurate dose calculation engine based on the kernel superposition algorithm. The system was designed for use for(More)
PURPOSE To perform a Phase I radiation dose-escalation trial to determine the maximal tolerable dose (MTD) deliverable to the gross tumor volume (GTV) using an accelerated fractionation with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy regimen with parotid gland sparing as the sole therapy in the treatment of locally advanced head-and-neck(More)
Currently, most intensity-modulated radiation therapy systems use dose-volume (DV)-based objectives. Although acceptable plans can be generated using these objectives, much trial and error is necessary to plan complex cases with many structures because numerous parameters need to be adjusted. An objective function that makes use of a generalized equivalent(More)
Species of Suillus produce fleshy, pored mushrooms. They are important symbiotic (ectomycorrhizal) partners of many coniferous trees. The genus includes several putative eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunct species, i.e., the S. americanus-S. sibiricus and S. decipiens-S. spraguei complexes. Phylogenetic relationships among the groups were(More)
Margin reduction for prostate radiotherapy is limited by uncertainty in prostate localization during treatment. We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of measuring prostate intrafraction motion using kV fluoroscopy performed simultaneously with radiotherapy. Three gold coils used for target localization were implanted into the patient's prostate gland(More)
Gradient algorithms are the most commonly employed search methods in the routine optimization of IMRT plans. It is well known that local minima can exist for dose-volume-based and biology-based objective functions. The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative speed of different gradient algorithms, to investigate the strategies for accelerating the(More)
PURPOSE For patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, the seminal vesicles (SVs) are included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purposes of this study are to investigate interfraction motion characteristics of the SVs and determine proper margins for online computed tomography image guidance. METHODS AND MATERIALS Twenty-four(More)
There is much evidence that diabetes and hyperglycaemia contribute to the impairment of endothelial function and induce severe changes in the proliferation, the adhesive and synthetic properties of endothelial cells. Induction of apoptosis could represent one mechanism to prevent the new accumulation of those vascular defects and to allow generation of(More)