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Recent evidence indicates there is a role for small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, as vehicles for intercellular communication. Exosomes secreted by most cell types can mediate transfer of proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs, but their role in the transmission of infectious agents is less established. Recent studies have shown that hepatocyte-derived(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has emerged as a global public health issue. Although it often causes an acute and self-limiting infection with low mortality rates in the western world, it bears a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients with substantial mortality rates. Organ transplant recipients who receive(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The existence of slowly cycling, adult stem cells has been challenged by the identification of actively cycling cells. We investigated the existence of uncommitted, slowly cycling cells by tracking 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) label-retaining cells (LRCs) in normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus (BE), esophageal dysplasia, adenocarcinoma,(More)
Recent animal and human studies have highlighted the potential of hepatocyte-derived microRNAs (HDmiRs) in serum as early, stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of liver injury. Their usefulness in human liver transplantation, however, has not been addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate serum HDmiRs as markers of hepatic injury and(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS RNA interference (RNAi), a sequence-specific gene silencing technology triggered by small interfering RNA (siRNA), represents promising new avenues for treatment of various liver diseases including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In plants and invertebrates, RNAi provides an important mechanism of cellular defence against viral pathogens(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Many recipients of organ transplants develop chronic hepatitis, due to infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Although chronic HEV infection is generally associated with immunosuppressive therapies, little is known about how different immunosuppressants affect HEV infection. METHODS A subgenomic HEV replication model, in which(More)
Rapid liver regeneration is required after living-donor liver transplantation and oncologic liver resections to warrant sufficient liver function and prevent small-for-size syndrome. Recent evidence highlights the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for treatment of toxic liver injury, but whether MSC and their secreted factors stimulate(More)
Despite the introduction of oral vaccines, rotavirus still kills over 450,000 children under five years of age annually. The absence of specific treatment prompts research aiming at further understanding of pathogenesis and the development of effective antiviral therapy, which in turn requires advanced experimental models. Given the intrinsic limitations of(More)
The current standard interferon-alpha (IFN-α)-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is only effective in approximately half of the patients, prompting the need for alternative treatments. RNA interference (RNAi) represents novel approach to combat HCV by sequence-specific targeting of viral or host factors involved in infection.(More)
UNLABELLED Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a highly effective immunosuppressant that has broad antiviral activity against different viruses and can act in synergy with interferon-α (IFN-α) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. MPA is a potent inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor but the antiviral mechanisms are less understood. The aim of this(More)