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Transcriptional activation by c-Myc through specific E box elements is thought to be essential for its biological role. However, c-MycS is unable to activate transcription through these elements and yet retains the ability to stimulate proliferation, induce anchorage-independent growth, and induce apoptosis. In addition, c-MycS retains the ability to(More)
The c-myc gene has been implicated in multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to the full-length c-Myc 1 and 2 proteins, we have found that human, murine, and avian cells express smaller c-Myc proteins arising from translational initiation at conserved downstream AUG codons. These c-Myc short (c-Myc(More)
The La (SS-B) autoimmune antigen is an RNA-binding protein that is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The spectrum of RNAs that interact with the La antigen includes species which also bind to the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR. We have investigated whether the La antigen can regulate the activity of PKR and have observed(More)
The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically(More)
Mutations resulting in progranulin haploinsufficiency cause disease in patients with a subset of frontotemporal lobar degeneration; however, the biological functions of progranulin in the brain remain unknown. To address this subject, the present study initially assessed changes in gene expression and cytokine secretion in rat primary cortical neurons(More)
Deficiency in mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a tetrameric enzyme, results from inheriting one or two ALDH2*2 alleles. This allele encodes a protein subunit with a lysine for glutamate substitution at position 487 and is dominant over the wild-type allele, ALDH2*1. The ALDH2*2-encoded subunit (ALDH2K) reduces the activity of ALDH2 enzyme in(More)
Individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the variant aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) allele (ALDH2*2), which encodes a protein differing only at residue 487 from the normal protein, have decreased ALDH2 activity in liver extracts and experience cutaneous flushing when they drink alcohol. The mechanisms by which this allele exerts its dominant effect is(More)
The mRNA for the novel aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 (ALDH5) gene was detected in HuH7 hepatoma cells. The cells also expressed cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) mRNA, but no mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) mRNA. Extracts of the hepatoma cells contained an enzymatic activity with an isoelectric point similar to that of ALDH1. This enzyme(More)
We studied the effect a variety of hormones and chemical stimuli on the activity of low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in rat H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells and ALDH activity in human HuH7 hepatoma cells. The low Km enzyme in H4IIEC3 cells reflects ALDH2 activity, and the ALDH activity in HuH7 likely represents ALDH5. Of the steroid hormone family, thyroid(More)
The myc family of transcriptional regulators carries out critical roles in the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. The B-myc gene is a recently identified myc family member that has not been well characterized. Previously, we have shown that B-Myc inhibits the ability of c-Myc to transform cells and can inhibit(More)