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The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is induced by hypoxia in endothelial cells (EC). Upregulation occurs primarily at the level of transcription and occurs to a much greater extent in EC than in other cell types. To characterize EC specific hypoxia response elements within the GAPDH gene, we performed transient(More)
DNA methylation and copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial and five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, and PC3M-LN4) were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme HpaII, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, labeling,(More)
Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading(More)
The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastohydroquinone:oxygen oxidoreductase that shares structural similarities with alternative oxidases (AOX). Multiple roles have been attributed to PTOX, such as involvement in carotene desaturation, a safety valve function, participation in the processes of chlororespiration and setting the redox poise for cyclic(More)
A 1.6 kb upstream regulatory sequence (GenBank accession no. AF472487) of plasma membrane aquaporinBnPIP1 gene fromBrassica napus was obtained by genomic walking based on ligation-mediated PCR method. Sequence analysis indicated that this fragment contained seed germination specific and vascular specific sequences. The 1.6 kb upstream sequence and various(More)
CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand(More)
DNA microarrays of promoter sequences have been developed in order to identify the profile of genes bound and activated by DNA regulatory proteins such as the transcription factors c-Jun and ATF2 as well as DNA-modifying methylases. The arrays contain 3083 unique human promoter sequences from +500 to -1000 nts from the transcription start site.(More)
The carotene cis-trans isomerase CRTISO is a constituent of the carotene desaturation pathway as evolved in cyanobacteria and prevailing in plants, in which a tetra-cis-lycopene species, termed prolycopene, is formed. CRTISO, an evolutionary descendant of the bacterial carotene desaturase CRTI, catalyzes the cis-to-trans isomerization reactions leading to(More)
The cyclization of lycopene generates provitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene and paves the way toward the formation of cyclic xanthophylls playing distinct roles in photosynthesis and as precursors for regulatory molecules in plants and animals. The biochemistry of lycopene cyclization has been enigmatic, as the previously proposed acid-base(More)
Lycopene cyclases responsible for the formation of ε-ionone rings (LCYe) mark a plant-specific bifurcation of carotenogenesis. We investigated purified rice LCYe (OsLCYe) in a liposome-based biphasic assay system. OsLCYe depends on reduced flavin cofactors stabilizing a transient state formed during the non-redox cyclization reaction. In contrast to OsLCYb,(More)