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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) has been found to play an essential role in cell proliferation, but whether it was involved in Schwann cells differentiation has never been studied. We have found in sciatic nerve injury that expression of PPAR-γ decreases mainly in Schwann cells, and it was also increased in differentiated Schwann(More)
Schwann cell precursors differentiating into a myelinating phenotype are critical for peripheral nerve development and regeneration. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of Schwann cell differentiation. In the present study, we performed a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced Schwann cell differentiation model in vitro.(More)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which emerged in the United States in 2013, has spread throughout North America. Limited availability of PEDV complete genomes worldwide has impeded our understanding of PEDV introduction into the United States. To determine the relationship between the North American strains and global emerging and historic PEDV(More)
To understand the progression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with a newly emerged US strain, PC21A, of the virus. At 24–48 hours postinoculation, the pigs exhibited severe diarrhea and vomiting, fecal shedding, viremia, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that strain PC21A is highly(More)
Norovirus (NoV) RNA was detected in the stools of 6 out 14 (42.8%) 8-12-week-old cats with enteritis from a feline shelter, in New York State. Upon sequence analysis of the complete capsid, the six NoVs were found to be identical, suggesting the spread of a unique NoV strain in the shelter. The full-length genomic sequence (7839 nt) of one feline NoV,(More)
The prevalence of porcine sapoviruses (SaVs) and noroviruses (NoVs) in nursing piglets on three pig farms in Ohio was studied. Fecal samples (n = 139) were collected from individual pigs and screened for caliciviruses by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using partial sequences of the RNA polymerase region. Three different SaV genogroups,(More)
In this study, swine fecal specimens (n = 251) collected from nursing and weaned piglets raised under smallholder production systems were screened for the presence of kobuviruses by RT-PCR. Porcine kobuviruses were detected in 13.1 % (33/251) of the samples. We demonstrated that porcine kobuvirus infections exist in indigenous pigs in Kenya and Uganda and(More)
Forkhead box-containing protein, class O 3 a (FOXO3a), an Akt downstream target, plays an important role in peripheral nervous system. FOXO3a shares the ability to be inhibited and translocated from the nucleus on phosphorylation by proteins such as Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway. To elucidate the expression and possible function of FOXO3a in lesion(More)
The lack of an animal model for human norovirus (HuNoV) has hindered the development of therapeutic strategies. This study demonstrated that a commonly used cholesterol-lowering statin medication, simvastatin, which increases HuNoV replication in an in vitro replicon system, also enhances HuNoV infectivity in the gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model. In contrast,(More)
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Establishment of a cell culture system for in vitro HuNoV growth remains challenging. Replication of HuNoVs in human intestinal cell lines (INT-407 and Caco-2) that differentiate to produce microvilli in rotation wall vessel (RWV) three-dimensional cultures has been reported (Straub et(More)