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Human norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. Since no cell culture method for human norovirus exists, cultivable surrogate viruses (CSV), including feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), and Tulane virus (TuV), have been used to study responses to inactivation and(More)
Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275(More)
Sapoviruses (SaVs) are emerging enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Human SaVs are genetically variable and have been classified into four genogroups (GI, -II, -IV, and -V). To date, only two genetically similar porcine SaV strains have been reported that belong to GIII. To investigate the genetic diversity of porcine SaVs and their(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) are emerging enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Porcine genogroup II (GII) NoVs replicate in pigs, but their pathogenesis is undefined. The porcine SaV/GIII/Cowden/80/US strain causes diarrhea and intestinal lesions in pigs. Recently, genetically diverse porcine NoVs (genotypes 11, 18, and(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) are important human pathogens. Although the involvement of porcine NoVs in disease in pigs is unclear, they are genetically and antigenically closely related to human NoVs. Human NoV-like strains have been detected in pigs, raising public health concerns of potential interspecies transmission. Porcine SaVs are(More)
A porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), strain Cowden in the genus Sapovirus of the Caliciviridae family, can be propagated in a porcine kidney continuous cell line (LLC-PK) in the presence of bile acids in the cell culture medium. A full-length cDNA copy of the Cowden PEC genome was cloned into a plasmid vector directly downstream from the T7 RNA polymerase(More)
Sapoviruses cause acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals. They belong to the genus Sapovirus within the family Caliciviridae. They infect and cause disease in humans of all ages, in both sporadic cases and outbreaks. The clinical symptoms of sapovirus gastroenteritis are indistinguishable from those caused by noroviruses, so laboratory diagnosis is(More)
AIM To study the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) injury and the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and to explore the regulation mechanism of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) signal transduction pathway in inducing HO-1 expression(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that tangeretin, a flavonoid from citrus fruit peels, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and neuroprotective effects in animal disease models. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated whether tangeretin suppresses excessive microglial activation implicated in the(More)
UNLABELLED The porcine sapovirus (SaV) (PoSaV) Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. Compared to the wild-type (WT) PoSaV Cowden strain, tissue culture-adapted (TC) PoSaV has two conserved amino acid substitutions in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and six in the capsid protein (VP1). By using the reverse-genetics(More)