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In Arabidopsis, CORYNE (CRN), a new member of the receptor kinase family, was recently isolated as a key player involved in the CLAVATA3 (CLV3) signaling pathway, thereby playing an important role in regulating the development of shoot and root apical meristems. However, the precise relationships among CLAVATA1 (CLV1), CLAVATA2 (CLV2), and CRN receptors(More)
We have investigated the capability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to penetrate the cell wall and cell membrane of intact plant cells. Confocal fluorescence images revealed the cellular uptake of both SWNT/fluorescein isothiocyanate and SWNT/DNA conjugates, demonstrating that SWNTs also hold great promise as nanotransporters for walled plant(More)
To study the role of boron in pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils., pollen grains were cultured in standard medium or boron-deficient medium. Effects of boron on the localization of pectins and callose in the walls of pollen tubes were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy after staining with aniline blue or(More)
Evanescent wave excitation was used to visualize individual, FM4-64-labeled secretory vesicles in an optical slice proximal to the plasma membrane of Picea meyeri pollen tubes. A standard upright microscope was modified to accommodate the optics used to direct a laser beam at a variable angle. Under evanescent wave microscopy or total internal reflection(More)
Endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of protein and lipid compositions in the plasma membrane and for the acquisition of materials from the extracellular space. Clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytic processes are well established in yeast and animals; however, endocytic pathways involved in cargo internalization and intracellular trafficking(More)
Strategic control of mitochondrial movements and cellular distribution is essential for correct cell function and survival. However, despite being a vital process, mitochondrial movement in plant cells is a poorly documented phenomenon. To investigate the roles of actin filaments and microtubules on mitochondrial movements, Picea wilsonii pollen tubes were(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that move along actin filaments, and serve as calcium stores in plant cells. The positioning and dynamics of mitochondria depend on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions, but it is not clear whether microfilament cytoskeleton has a direct effect on mitochondrial function and Ca2+ storage. Therefore, we designed a(More)
We assessed the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on pollen tube development in Picea meyeri using fluorescent marker FM4-64 as a membrane-inserted endocytic/recycling marker, together with ultrastructural studies and Fourier transform infrared analysis of cell walls. BFA inhibited pollen germination and pollen tube growth, causing morphological changes in a(More)
Ammonium is a preferred source of nitrogen for plants but is toxic at high levels. Plant ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an essential role in NH4(+) uptake, but the mechanism by which AMTs are regulated remains unclear. To study how AMTs are regulated in the presence of ammonium, we used variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and(More)
To investigate the roles of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A in the development of pollen tubes of Picea wilsonii Mast., pollen grains were cultured in standard medium in the presence and absence of the protein phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A. At nanomolar concentrations, these compounds blocked pollen tube growth, causing abnormal(More)