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Leaf phenology of tropical evergreen forests affects carbon and water fluxes. In an earlier study of a seasonally moist evergreen tropical forest site in the Amazon basin, time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the VEGETATION and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors showed an unexpected seasonal pattern, with(More)
In this paper, we present an improved procedure for collecting no or little atmosphere-and snow-contaminated observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. The resultant time series of daily MODIS data of a temperate deciduous broadleaf forest (the Bartlett Experimental Forest) in 2004 show strong seasonal dynamics of(More)
In this paper, we present a theoretical and modeling framework to estimate the fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by vegetation canopy (FAPAR canopy), leaf (FAPAR leaf), and chlorophyll (FAPAR chl), respectively. FAPAR canopy is an important biophysical variable and has been used to estimate gross and net primary production.(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Hyperspectral data Radiative transfer models SAIL MCRM Photochemical reflectance index NDVI Two radiative transfer canopy models, SAIL and the two-layer Markov-Chain Canopy Reflectance Model (MCRM), were coupled with in situ leaf optical properties to simulate canopy-level spectral band ratio vegetation indices with the focus(More)
The tumor microenvironment is composed of tumor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells, which may inhibit or promote tumor growth and progression. The objectives of this retrospective study were to characterize the density of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in breast cancer, and to correlate the density of TAMs with(More)
† USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Abstract: The utilization of remotely sensed observations for light use efficiency (LUE) and tower-based gross primary production (GPP) estimates was studied in a USDA cornfield. Nadir hyperspectral reflectance measurements were acquired at canopy level during a collaborative field campaign conducted in(More)
– This study presents development of prototype products for terrestrial ecosystems in preparation for the future imaging spectrometer planned for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. We present a successful demonstration example in a coniferous forest of two product prototypes: fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) absorbed by(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression by binding to target mRNAs and induce translation repression or RNA degradation. There have been many studies indicating that both miRNAs and mRNAs display aberrant expression in breast cancer. Previously, most researches into the molecular mechanism of breast cancer(More)
Aromatase inhibitors have become the standard of care for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Meanwhile, more and more breast cancer patients who are treated with aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant therapies often experience arthralgias and musculoskeletal aching, in some cases, have necessitated discontinuation of(More)
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known(More)