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Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a(More)
Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement(More)
Transition metal sulfides gain much attention as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their rich redox chemistry and high electrical conductivity. Designing hierarchical nanostructures is an efficient approach to fully utilize merits of each component. In this work, amorphous MoS(2) is firstly demonstrated to show specific capacitance 1.6 times as(More)
Graphene, a two-dimensional, single-layer sheet of sp(2) hybridized carbon atoms, has attracted tremendous attention and research interest, owing to its exceptional physical properties, such as high electronic conductivity, good thermal stability, and excellent mechanical strength. Other forms of graphene-related materials, including graphene oxide, reduced(More)
Both amphioxus and the sea urchin encode a complex innate immune gene repertoire in their genomes, but the composition and mechanisms of their innate immune systems, as well as the fundamental differences between two systems, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we dissect the mucosal immune complexity of amphioxus into different(More)
In this work, we show that the maximum thermopower of few layers graphene (FLG) films could be greatly enhanced up to ∼700 μV/K after oxygen plasma treatment. The electrical conductivities of these plasma treated FLG films remain high, for example, ∼10(4) S/m, which results in power factors as high as ∼4.5 × 10(-3) W K(-2) m(-1). In comparison, the pristine(More)
In this work, a novel waste-to-resource strategy to convert waste bacteria into a useful class of cathode materials, lithium metal phosphate (LiMPO4; M = Fe, Mn), is presented. Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria used for removing phosphorus contamination from wastewater are harvested and used as precursors for the synthesis of LiMPO4. After annealing,(More)
Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with(More)
A large-area, continuous, few-layer reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin film has been fabricated on a Si/SiO(2) wafer using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method followed by thermal reduction. After photochemical reduction of Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) on rGO, the obtained PtNPs/rGO composite is employed as the conductive channel in a solution-gated field effect(More)