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The amino terminus of gap junction proteins, connexins, plays a fundamental role in voltage gating and ion permeation. We have previously shown with (1)H NMR that the structure of the N-terminus of a representative connexin molecule contains a flexible turn around glycine 12 [P.E. Purnick, D.C. Benjamin, V.K. Verselis, T.A. Bargiello, T.L. Dowd, Arch.(More)
The structure of the pore is critical to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying selective permeation and voltage-dependent gating of channels formed by the connexin gene family. Here, we describe a portion of the pore structure of unapposed hemichannels formed by a Cx32 chimera, Cx32*Cx43E1, in which the first extracellular loop (E1) of Cx32 is(More)
There is good evidence supporting the view that the transjunctional voltage sensor (V(j)-sensor) of Cx32 and other Group 1 connexins is contained within a segment of the N-terminus that contributes to the formation of the channel pore. We have shown that the addition of negatively charged amino acid residues at several positions within the first 10 amino(More)
Membrane proteins and lipids often appear to be distributed in patches on the cell surface. These patches are often assumed to be membrane domains, arising from specific molecular associations. However, a computer simulation (Gheber and Edidin, 1999) shows that membrane patchiness may result from a combination of vesicle trafficking and dynamic barriers to(More)
Channels formed by connexins display two distinct types of voltage-dependent gating, termed V(j)- or fast-gating and loop- or slow-gating. Recent studies, using metal bridge formation and chemical cross-linking have identified a region within the channel pore that contributes to the formation of the loop-gate permeability barrier. The conformational changes(More)
Voltage is an important parameter that regulates the open probability of both intercellular channels (gap junctions) and undocked hemichannels formed by members of the connexin gene family. All connexin channels display two distinct voltage-gating processes, termed loop- or slow-gating and V(j)- or fast-gating, which are intrinsic hemichannel properties.(More)
Connexins form both large pore gap junction (intercel-lular) channels and nonjunctional (undocked) hemi-channels that are essential for many physiological and developmental processes and, not surprisingly, the mu-tational targets of several human diseases (Dobrowolski and Willecke, 2009; Laird, 2010). Voltage is an important regulatory parameter that drives(More)
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