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Recent studies have demonstrated that neuropilin 1 (NP-1) is involved in HTLV-1 entry; however, the role NP-1 plays in this process is not understood. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of human NP-1 but not NP-2 cDNA increased susceptibility to HTLV-1. SiRNA-mediated inhibition of NP-1 expression correlated with significant reduction of HTLV-1(More)
To analyze HTLV-1 cytotropism, we developed a highly sensitive vaccinia virus-based assay measuring activation of a reporter gene upon fusion of two distinct cell populations. We used this system in a functional cDNA screening to isolate and confirm that the glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT-1) is a receptor for HTLV-1. GLUT-1 is a ubiquitously expressed(More)
CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor 1 is a member of the CXC family of chemokines that plays an important role in hematopoiesis and signals through CXCR4 and CXCR7. Two splice variants of human CXCL12 (CXCL12alpha and CXCL12beta) induce chemotaxis of CXCR4(+) cells and inhibit X4 infection. Recent studies described four other novel splice variants of human(More)
It has previously been demonstrated that there are two distinct mechanisms for genetic resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) conferred by the CCR5Delta32 gene: the loss of wild-type CCR5 surface expression and the generation of CCR5Delta32 protein, which interacts with CXCR4. To analyse the protective effects of long-term expression of(More)
We previously demonstrated that the naturally occurring splice variant stromal cell-derived factor 1gamma/CXCL12gamma is the most potent CXCL12 isoform in blocking X4 HIV-1, with weak chemotactic activity. A conserved BBXB domain (B for basic and X for any residue) located in the N terminus ((24)KHLK(27)) is found in all six isoforms of CXCL12. To determine(More)
We have recently demonstrated that the CCR5Delta32 protein interacts with CCR5 and CXCR4 and down-modulates their cell surface expression. We have also reported the absence of detectable expression of the truncated CCR5Delta32 protein in four out of six human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV(+)) CCR5(-/-) individuals. To explain the defect in protein(More)
The human glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT-1) functions as a receptor for human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). GLUT-1 is a twelve-transmembrane cell surface receptor with six extracellular (ECL) and seven intracellular domains. To analyze HTLV-1 cytotropism, we utilized polyclonal antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to the large extracellular(More)
Although combinations of drugs that target the HIV reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes have clearly revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS, problems with these agents, such as viral escape mutants, persistence of viral reservoirs, poor patient compliance due to complicated regimens, and toxic side effects, have emphasized the need for development(More)
Recent studies have identified mutations in the dynein heavy chain gene (DYNC1H1), which lead to 2 closely related human motor neuropathies: a dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMALED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease.(1,2) We describe the identification of a novel mutation (p.G807S) in DYNC1H1 as the cause of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of individuals carrying the two alleles of the CCR5Delta32 mutation (CCR5(-/-)) has rarely been reported, but how the virus overcomes the CCR5Delta32 protective effect in these cases has not been delineated. We have investigated this in 6 infected (HIV(+)) and 25 HIV(-) CCR5(-/-) individuals. CD4(+) T(More)