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The levels of beta-endorphin and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe (MEAP) immunoreactivity in various brain regions (including amygdala, cortex, hippocampus, hypothalmus, nucleus accumbens, pituitary and ventral tegmental area) were studied in male rats subjected to daily intramuscular injections during 14 days of high doses (5 and 15 mg/kg) of the anabolic androgenic(More)
The SQL Server 11 release (code named "Denali") introduces a new data warehouse query acceleration feature based on a new index type called a column store index. The new index type combined with new query operators processing batches of rows greatly improves data warehouse query performance: in some cases by hundreds of times and routinely a tenfold speedup(More)
Previous studies have shown that substance P (SP) may modulate the abstinence reaction to opioid withdrawal. Its N-terminal fragment SP1-7 may inhibit the intensity of the withdrawal reactions in morphine dependent mice. This study was designed to determine whether the endogenous concentrations of the SP1-7 fragment in the brain are affected during(More)
Smad proteins mediate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling to regulate cell growth and differentiation. The SnoN oncoprotein was found to interact with Smad2 and Smad4 and to repress their abilities to activate transcription through recruitment of the transcriptional corepressor N-CoR. Immediately after TGF-beta stimulation, SnoN is rapidly(More)
The human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of a CDK9/cyclin T1 heterodimer, functions as both a general and an HIV-1 Tat-specific transcription factor. P-TEFb activates transcription by phosphorylating RNA polymerase (Pol) II, leading to the formation of processive elongation complexes. As a Tat cofactor, P-TEFb stimulates HIV-1(More)
It has been documented that stress or glucocorticoids have conflicting effects on memory under different conditions. However, it is not fully understood why stress can either impair or enhance memory. Here, we have examined the performance of six age groups of Wistar rats in a water maze spatial task to evaluate the effects of stress under different(More)
Syntaxin 1A has been implicated to play an important role in neurotransmitter release by regulating synaptic vesicle fusion. The protein is also suggested to be required for other types of membrane fusion such as cellularization during embryonic development. In the current study, we overexpressed syntaxin 1A, SNAP-25b, and VAMP-2 in PC12 cells using(More)
Neuropathic pain management is challenging for physicians and a vexing problem for basic researchers. Recent studies reveal that activated spinal astrocytes may play a vital role in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. We have found increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, a hallmark of(More)
Essential to understanding the roles proteins and structural elements play at the synapse is to understand the development, remodeling and reinnervation of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. It has, however, been a challenging task to label and visualize neuromuscular junctions. In this paper we demonstrate how adenovirus technology can be combined with(More)