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In China, domestic ducks and wild birds often share the same water, in which influenza viruses replicate preferentially. Isolation of 2 novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses from apparently healthy domestic ducks highlights the role of these ducks as reassortment vessels. Such new subtypes of influenza viruses may pose a(More)
In spring 2009, one strain of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus was isolated from wild swans in Shanghai, indicating the importance of the wild swan in the ecology of this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Eastern China. Pathogenicity experiments conducted in this study indicated that the virus was highly pathogenic for chickens but lowly pathogenic(More)
Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus remains a substantial threat to public health. To understand the molecular basis and host mechanism for the high virulence of H5N1 viruses in mammals, we compared two H5N1 isolates which have similar genetic backgrounds but greatly differ in their virulence in mice. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly(More)
The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in(More)
The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein has been demonstrated to be a nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking protein. Previous studies have shown that the M protein localizes in the nucleus through a bipartite nuclear localization signal. Here, we report that the ability of the M protein to shuttle to the cytoplasm is mediated by three nuclear export(More)
Although extensive data demonstrates that the majority of H6 duck isolates belonged to a single H6N2 virus lineage with a single gene constellation in southern China from 2000 to 2005, the prevalence of H6N2 virus in poultry in Eastern China is largely unknown. Epidemiology revealed that H6N2 viruses were the most frequently detected influenza subtypes in(More)
The recombination rate in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was as high as 10% in RDP analysis with full-length NDV genome sequences available in GenBank. We found that two NDV strains, China/Guangxi09/2003 and NDV/03/018, previously reported as recombinants, failed to show any evidence of recombination upon complete genome resequencing. Furthermore, we were(More)
Some strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VIId cause more-severe tissue damage in lymphoid organs compared to other virulent strains. In this study, we aim to define the mechanism of this distinct pathological manifestation of genotype VII viruses. Pathology, virus replication, and the innate immune response in lymphoid tissues of chickens(More)
N-linked glycans are composed of three major types: high-mannose (Man), hybrid or complex. The functional role of hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection and fusion was examined in N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT I)-deficient Lec1 cells, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell incapable of synthesizing hybrid-(More)
Spatial and temporal distributions of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface waters of Haikou Bay, China from October 2013 to September 2014. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 420.2 to 2539.1 ng L(-1) with the average value of 1016.3±455.8 ng L(-1), which were predominated by low molecular weight PAHs (2- and 3-ring(More)