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In human primary visual cortex, parvalbumin (PV) is expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells in layer I by 20 weeks of gestation (20W), but its immunoreactivity is mostly lost by term. PV immunoreactivity in layers II-VI mainly develops later, from 26 to 34W, following an approximately 'inside-outside' sequence in a series of bands. PR-positive perikarya appear in(More)
In the central nervous system (CNS), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) transports cytoplasmic monoamines such as dopamine into synaptic vesicles for storage and subsequent exocytotic release. Recent studies have provided direct evidence for VMAT2-regulated monoamine neurotransmitter involvement in the neurophysiological activities of neurological(More)
Leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1 (Letm1) is a mitochondrial protein that is associated with seizure attacks in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of Letm1 in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and pilocarpine-induced rat model of epilepsy, and to determine if altered Letm1 leads(More)
Recent studies have indicated that acid-sensing ion channels may play a significant role in the termination of epilepsy. In particular, acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is expressed in the central nervous system and is most sensitive to extracellular pH. However, whether ASIC3 plays a role in epilepsy is unknown. In this study, qRT-PCR, Western blot,(More)
The distribution of the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K (CB) was investigated in human fetal primary visual cortex. CB is present in Cajal-Retzius cells of layer I, in sparse neurons of the ventricular and intermediate zones (VZ, IZ), and in tangential fibres in IZ by 15 weeks (W) of gestation. Cajal-Retzius cells lose their staining by 30W. CB(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to promote neurogenesis and survival. However, recent studies have suggested that IGF-1 regulates neuronal firing and excitatory neurotransmission. In the present study, focusing on temporal lobe epilepsy, we found that IGF-1 levels and IGF-1 receptor activation are increased in human epileptogenic tissues, and(More)
A rapid, low cost, accurate point-of-care (POC) device to detect influenza virus is needed for effective treatment and control of both seasonal and pandemic strains. We developed a single-use microfluidic chip that integrates solid phase extraction (SPE) and molecular amplification via a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify(More)
BACKGROUND New-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) tend to replace traditional AEDs as the first-line choice for epilepsy. However, whether this change results in better outcome, especially in China, remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Two broad spectrum AEDs, the traditional drug of sustained-release formulation of valproate (SRVPA) and the(More)