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The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters
The discovery of an exceptionally preserved primitive fish from the Ludlow of Yunnan, China, that represents the oldest near-complete gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) offers insights into the origin and early divergence of osteichthyans, and indicates that the minimum date for the actinopterygian–sarcoperygian split was no later than 419 million years ago. Expand
A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones
A three-dimensionally preserved 419-million-year-old placoderm fish from the Silurian of China is described that represents the first stem gnathostome with dermal marginal jaw bones (premaxilla, maxilla and dentary), features previously restricted to Osteichthyes. Expand
New genomic and fossil data illuminate the origin of enamel
It is shown that Psarolepis romeri, a bony fish from the the Early Devonian period, combines enamel-covered dermal odontodes on scales and skull bones with teeth of naked dentine, and that Lepisosteus oculatus (the spotted gar) has enam and ambn genes that are expressed in the skin, probably associated with ganoine formation. Expand
A brief review of the Middle Palaeozoic vertebrates from Southeast Asia
Abstract Here we review the Silurian and Devonian vertebrates from Southeast Asia and their biogeographic affinities. These vertebrate remains are distributed in the Shan-Thai and Indochina terranesExpand
Three‐dimensional virtual histology of silurian osteostracan scales revealed by synchrotron radiation microtomography
The results highlight that 3D‐histological investigation on scales and other dermal skeletons of osteostracans is necessary to fully appreciate the diversity of skeletal histologies in the group. Expand
Scales and Tooth Whorls of Ancient Fishes Challenge Distinction between External and Oral ‘Teeth’
The new findings reveal, for the first time, how polyodontode scales grow in 3D in an extinct bony fish and show that dentition-like odontode patterning occurs on scales and that the primary patterning unit of a tooth whorl may be the bony base rather than the odontodes it carries. Expand
The origin of novel features by changes in developmental mechanisms: ontogeny and three‐dimensional microanatomy of polyodontode scales of two early osteichthyans
The evolutionary origin of cosmine and its associated pore‐canal system is reviewed and a primary homology framework to generate microanatomical characters is proposed, which can be used in the phylogenetic analysis of early osteichthyans when more 3D data become available. Expand
A new osteichthyan from the late Silurian of Yunnan, China
A phylogenetic analysis resolves Sparalepis within a previously recovered cluster of stem-sarcopterygians including Guiyu, Psarolepis and Achoania, suggesting that the South China block may have been an early center of diversification for early gnathostomes, well before the advent of the Devonian “Age of Fishes”. Expand
Silurian atmospheric O2 changes and the early radiation of gnathostomes
Abstract The number of known Silurian gnathostome fossils has increased significantly during the last two decades, and greatly improved our understanding of the early diversification of gnathostomesExpand
Three-dimensional paleohistology of the scale and median fin spine of Lophosteus superbus (Pander 1856)
The first description of the morphology and paleohistology of a fin spine and scale from Lophosteus using virtual thin sections and 3D reconstructions that were segmented using phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography reveal that both structures have fully or partially buried odontodes, which retain fine morphological details in older generations. Expand