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This study investigates whether progesterone administration regulates AQP4 and GFAP expression in rats with bilateral contusion injuries of the medial frontal cortex. Male rats were given 0 or 16 mg/kg injections of progesterone at 1, 6, 24, and 48 h post-injury. Brains were extracted at 24 h or 72 h post-injury and assayed for cerebral edema and AQP4 and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Filamentous middle cerebral artery occlusion (fMCAO) is the most frequently used focal cerebral ischemia model in rodents. The proximity of the ophthalmic artery to the middle cerebral artery suggests that fMCAO induces retinal ischemia. We therefore tested whether fMCAO induces ischemia/reperfusion damage in retina in mice. METHODS(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We compare the effects of postinjury administration of allopregnanolone, a metabolite of progesterone, to progesterone in an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. METHODS Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in age-matched, adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats by using an intraluminal filament and suture method to occlude(More)
This report compares the effects of progesterone and its metabolite, allopregnanolone, on the early injury cascade (apoptosis) and long-term functional deficits after TBI. Progesterone (16 mg/kg) or allopregnanolone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg) were injected at 1 h, 6 h, and then for 5 consecutive days after bilateral contusions of the frontal cortex in adult male(More)
Fibrates are lipid lowering drugs and found as ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). A clinical study has shown that one type of fibrate gemfibrozil reduces stroke incidence in men. However, it remains unknown whether gemfibrozil improves outcome after stroke. We hypothesized that prophylactic administration of gemfibrozil(More)
Fibrates, one group of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators, are lipid lowering drugs. Fibrates have been shown to attenuate brain tissue injury after focal cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated the impact of fenofibrate on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in male wild type and PPARalpha-null mice. Animals were treated for 7(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been shown to contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, infarct formation, and hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke. The cellular source of MMP-9 detectable in the ischemic brain remains controversial since extracellular molecules in the brain may be derived from blood. We here demonstrate that bone(More)
Fibrates are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α. Pretreatment with fibrates has been shown to protect brain against ischemia in mice. We hypothesized that fibrates elevate superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the brain microvessels (BMVs). BMVs were isolated from male C57BL/6 and PPARα null mice that had been treated with(More)
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