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Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and are a pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the factors that influence the dynamics of amyloid plaque formation and growth in vivo are largely unknown. Using serial intravital multiphoton microscopy through a thinned-skull cranial window(More)
Methylprednisolone (MP) is used to treat a variety of neurological disorders involving white matter injury, including multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Although its mechanism of action has been attributed to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties, we examined the possibility that MP may have direct(More)
One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the extracellular space in the brain. Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic fragment of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). For APP to be proteolytically cleaved into Aβ, it must be internalized(More)
It has been postulated that the development of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may result from an imbalance between the generation and clearance of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). Although familial AD appears to be caused by Abeta overproduction, sporadic AD (the most prevalent form) may result from impairment in clearance. Recent evidence(More)
In sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), impaired Aβ removal contributes to elevated extracellular Aβ levels that drive amyloid plaque pathogenesis. Extracellular proteolysis, export across the blood-brain barrier, and cellular uptake facilitate physiologic Aβ clearance. Astrocytes can take up and degrade Aβ, but it remains unclear whether this function is(More)
The deposition of β-amyloid protein(Aβ) and loss of neurons within the brain are the pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apoptosis is a crucial pathway in neuronal loss in AD. Tanshinone IIA (tanIIA) is one of ingredients of tanshinone which is the major component of the traditional Chinese herb Danshen. The present study explores the effects(More)
Methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic glucocorticoid agonist, is widely used for the clinical therapy of white matter diseases in the nervous system, such as spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. In addition to its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, we recently discovered a selective antiapoptotic effect of MP on oligodendrocytes via(More)
The accumulation of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) in amyloid plaques is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reactive astrocytes are intimately associated with amyloid plaques; however, their role in AD pathogenesis is unclear. We deleted the genes encoding two intermediate filament proteins required for astrocyte activation-glial(More)
UNLABELLED In AD, an imbalance between Aβ production and removal drives elevated brain Aβ levels and eventual amyloid plaque deposition. APP undergoes nonamyloidogenic processing via α-cleavage at the plasma membrane, amyloidogenic β- and γ-cleavage within endosomes to generate Aβ, or lysosomal degradation in neurons. Considering multiple reports(More)
The bcl-x gene appears to play a critical role in regulating apoptosis in the developing and mature CNS and following CNS injury. Two isoforms of Bcl-x are produced as a result of alternative pre-mRNA splicing: Bcl-x(L) (the long form) is anti-apoptotic, while Bcl-x(S) (short form) is pro-apoptotic. Despite the antagonistic activities of these two isoforms,(More)