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Effect of Deletion of Genes Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Core and O-Antigen Synthesis on Virulence and Immunogenicity of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium
The results indicate that nonreversible truncation of the outer core is not a viable option for developing a live oral Salmonella vaccine, while a wzy mutant that retains one O-antigen unit is adequate for stimulating the optimal protective immunity to homologous or heterologous antigens by oral, intranasal, or intraperitoneal routes of administration.
Salmonella Synthesizing 1-Monophosphorylated Lipopolysaccharide Exhibits Low Endotoxic Activity while Retaining Its Immunogenicity
Rec recombinant, plasmid-free strains of Salmonella are constructed that produce predominantly 1-dephosphorylated lipid A, similar to the adjuvant approved for human use, and mice inoculated with these detoxified strains were protected against wild-type challenge.
Phosphate Groups of Lipid A Are Essential for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence and Affect Innate and Adaptive Immunity
Attenuated and dephosphorylated Salmonella vaccines were able to induce adaptive immunity against heterologous (PspA of Streptococcus pneumoniae) and homologous antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] and outer membrane proteins [OMPs]).
A High-resolution Typing Assay for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Based on Fimbrial Diversity
A typing assay based on the polymorphism of four gene sequences and the diversity of fimbriae present can supply more discriminatory information for UPEC lineages, and have the potential to be applied in epidemiological surveillance of UPEC isolates.