Qinghuan Xiao

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Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are exceptionally well adapted to subserve diverse physiological roles, from epithelial fluid transport to sensory transduction, because their gating is cooperatively controlled by the interplay between ionotropic and metabotropic signals. A molecular understanding of the dual regulation of CaCCs by voltage and Ca(2+)(More)
This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the bestrophins, a newly identified family of proteins that can function both as Cl(-) channels and as regulators of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The founding member, human bestrophin-1 (hBest1), was identified as the gene responsible for a dominantly inherited, juvenile-onset form of macular(More)
The newly discovered Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC), Anoctamin 1 (Ano1 or TMEM16A), has been implicated in vital physiological functions including epithelial fluid secretion, gut motility, and smooth muscle tone. Overexpression of Ano1 in HEK cells or Xenopus oocytes is sufficient to generate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents, but the details of(More)
Until recently, anion (Cl(-)) channels have received considerably less attention than cation channels. One reason for this may be that many Cl(-) channels perform functions that might be considered cell-biological, like fluid secretion and cell volume regulation, whereas cation channels have historically been associated with cellular excitability, which(More)
Mutations in the bestrophin-1 (Best1) gene are linked to several kinds of macular degeneration in both humans and dogs. Although bestrophins have been shown clearly to be Cl ion channels, it is controversial whether Cl channel dysfunction can explain the diseases. It has been suggested that bestrophins are multifunctional proteins: they may regulate(More)
Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD, also called Best’s disease) is a dominantly inherited, juvenile-onset form of macular degeneration, which is characterized by abnormal accumulation of yellow pigment in the outer retina and a depressed electro-oculogram light peak (LP). Over 100 disease-causing mutations in human bestrophin-1 (hBest1) are closely(More)
Mutations in the bestrophin-1 (Best1) gene are linked to several kinds of macular degeneration in both humans and dogs. Although bestrophins have been shown clearly to be Cl(-) ion channels, it is controversial whether Cl(-) channel dysfunction can explain the diseases. It has been suggested that bestrophins are multifunctional proteins: they may regulate(More)
Anoctamin1 (Ano1, or TMEM16A) is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel that is gated by both voltage and Ca2+. We have previously identified that the first intracellular loop that contains a high density of acidic residues mediates voltage- and calcium-dependent gating of Ano1. Mutation of the four consecutive glutamates (444EEEE447) inhibits the(More)
Human bestrophin-1 (hBest1), which is genetically linked to several kinds of retinopathy and macular degeneration in both humans and dogs, is the founding member of a family of Cl(-) ion channels that are activated by intracellular Ca(2+). At present, the structures and mechanisms responsible for Ca(2+) sensing remain unknown. Here, we have used a(More)
Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is an inherited autosomal dominant, juvenile onset form of macular degeneration caused by mutations in a chloride ion channel, human bestrophin-1 (hBest1). Mutations in Best1 have also been linked to several other forms of retinopathy. In addition to mutations, hBest1 dysfunction might come about by disruption of other(More)
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