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To develop a safe, effective, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), we have successfully constructed two recombinant lactobacillus strains (LA4356-pH and DLD17-pH) that express the foreign HPAI virus protein hemagglutinin 1 (HA(1)). The mucosal and systemic immune responses triggered by these two recombinant(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for initiation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR ligands combine with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on the DC surface and induce DC maturation. The potential effect of three types of TLR ligands (Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides) on(More)
Present work investigates the potential of absorption enhancers (glucose, EDTA, sodium cholate, SDS, ethanol and menthol) to open the cellular tight junctions and in doing so improve the paracellular permeability of macromolecules. Initial work assessed cytotoxicity (through MTT assays) of absorption enhancers on Caco-2 cells to confirm the suitable(More)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. M. hyopneumoniae infects pigs at mucosal surfaces of respiratory tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the protection rate against M. hyopneumoniae infection following intranasal immunization with(More)
Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats.(More)
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Bacillus subtilis antagonises enterotoxic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways. In vitro studies were performed in which ETEC-infected Caco-2 cultured human intestinal cells were first incubated with B. subtilis and then ETEC adhesion and(More)
Platelet functions are increasingly measured under flow conditions to account for blood hydrodynamic effects. Typically, these studies involve exposing platelets to high shear stress for periods significantly longer than would occur in vivo. In the current study, we demonstrate that the platelet response to high shear depends on the duration of shear(More)
Arterial stenosis results in a complex pattern of blood flow containing an extremely fast flow in the throat of stenosis and a post-stenosis low flow. The fast flow generates high shear stress that has been demonstrated in vitro to activate and aggregate platelets. One potential problem of these in vitro studies is that platelets are invariably exposed to a(More)
BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is a major complication of trauma and often becomes more severe in hypothermic patients. Although it has been known that platelets are activated in the cold, studies have been focused on platelet behavior at 4 degrees C, which is far below temperatures encountered in hypothermic trauma patients. In contrast, how platelets function at(More)
Surface layer (S-layer) proteins are crystalline arrays of proteinaceous subunits present as the outermost component of the cell wall in several Lactobacillus species. The underlying mechanism for how S-layer proteins inhibit pathogen infections remains unclear. To gain insights into the mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus S-layer(More)